first thing faced man who begins learning English - the difficulty in reading the most words.On this account many jokes among themselves even native speakers, to say nothing of those for whom it is not native.A Dutch linguist even wrote a poem containing the most difficult and controversial cases of English phonetics - read it without mistakes is difficult even to someone who knows the language.
But joking aside, it is necessary to learn to pronounce the words correctly.This helps the rules of reading in English.For starters, they are a bit complicated, but it's just not used to.Understand them and securing good theory with examples, you'll see how much they make your life easier.
What are these rules?
not knowing them, it will be difficult to learn to read.Of course, you can remember the transcription of the words that you meet.But in this case, your reading ability will be very limited.And if you meet a familiar word roots, but incomprehensible to read the suffix or prefix?Or the name of your own?In such cases, the error is inevitable, if you do not know the rules of reading in English.For starters, they are especially important because they allow to feel and understand the logic of the language at all levels, starting with phonetics.
Next you will learn how to read the different sounds and combinations thereof, as the present rules of English to children and what kind of exercise you can use to learn to read and remember the symbols of transcription.
Let's start with the simplest, and then will move to the complex.Most consonants in English a little different from the Russian.Yet there is a difference.In general, there are such characteristics:
- always firmly pronounced;
- sonorous sounds are not stunned at the ends of words;
- after the sounds [p, t, k] goes aspiration, t. To. The mouth opens more quickly than in pronunciation in Russian;
- sound [w] pronounced pronounced by two lips;
- when pronouncing the sound [v], on the contrary, is involved only to the lower lip;
- many sounds [t, d, s, z, n, l, tʃ, dʒ] pronounced with the tip of the tongue to touch the alveoli and not to the teeth (as in Russian pronunciation).
vowels Reading: 4 types of syllables
continue to dismantle the rule of reading in English.For beginners, the best examples of the feed material.Then it will be clear how to pronounce a particular sound.
in the English alphabet only six vowels, but the complexity of reading is related to the presence of four different types of syllables:
- vowel + r;
- vowel + r + vowel.
consider them all in order, not forgetting the examples.
vowel in an open syllable is read as it is called in the alphabet: O reads as "ou (EI)», U read a long "u" and so on. D. The only exception is the letter Y, which is pronounced "ah."How to determine that an open syllable?It must end in a vowel, which can be:
- at the end of monosyllabic words (me, go);
- at the beginning or middle of the (game, time, music);
- next to another vowel (suit).
In a closed syllable ending in a consonant (sometimes twice), vowels are read truncated:
- Aa [æ] turns into a cross between Russian sounds [a] and [e], for example: cat, apple.
- Uu [ʌ] is similar to the Russian sound [a], such as: rubber, jump.
- Ii [i] reads like a Russian short sound [and] such as: sit, finger.
- Ee [e] to read the sound [e] such as: pen, egg.
- Oo [ɔ] read a brief sound [on], for example: shop, fox.
- Yy [i] under the stress should be read as a short sound [and], for example: mystery, myth.
This minimum, which include the rules of reading in English for beginners.With exercises all 4 type is better not to hurry, but first thoroughly understand the differences between open and closed syllables.Then you can go on to more complex cases.
Type syllable "vowel + r» reads as follows:
- -ar recite long sound [AAA]
- -or read as long [Ltd.];
- -ur, -ir, -er like the sound [on], but only pronounced throat.
Type syllable "vowel + r + vowel" sound turns into a special two-part phenomenon of English phonetics - a diphthong:
- Aa read [ɛə], example: dare.
- Ee read [iə], example: mere.
- Ii read [aiə], example: fire.
- Uu read [juə], example: cure.
- Yy read [aiə], example: tyre.
exception is the letter Oo, who in the fourth type of style do not read a diphthong, but just long [ɔ:].For example: more.
Reading letter combinations
rules read in English (for beginners and advanced learners) can not do without an explanation of the different combinations of consonants and vowels.Let's start with the first.
combination wr at the beginning of the word: the sound [w] is not pronounced.Examples: write, wrist, wrong.
combination of wh at the beginning of the word: the sound [h] is not pronounced.Examples: why, what, white.But here there is an exception: If the letter for -wh -o, the "fall" when reading the sound [w].So are the words: who, whole, whose other.
kn The combination of letters and gn at the beginning of words is read only the sound [n].Examples: knot, gnat.
combination ng at the end of the word sounds like the sound [ŋ], pronounced through the nose (going), and the middle of the word - just [ŋg], for example: hungry, singer.
combination ch is read [tʃ], as the Russian sound [h '] soft.For example: cheese, coach.
combination gives sh sound [ʃ], similar to the Russian [br] in the soft version of the utterance.For example: she, push.
The letters read qu [kw], such as: queen, quite.
Bumpless combination -our read [ə]: colour, favourite.
combination -ous at the end of words to be read [əs]: dangerous, famous.
The letters -sion after a consonant pronounced [ʃn], such as: mission.And after a vowel comes to voicing [ʒn], example: decision.
before the letter e, i, y: per C pronounce the sound [s], G pronounced [dʒ].In other cases, it reads as: C - [k], G - [g].Compare: cell - cat, gym - game.
letter combinations of vowels: -ee, and -ea give a long sound [i:], a combination -ai read [ai], the combination of a long -oo transmits sound [u:].For example: bee, seal, moon.
However, there are sometimes exceptions.For example, blood: this word is read as a double O sound [ʌ].However, such cases a little bit.They are easy to remember, and they do not particularly complicate the rules of reading in English.
For children and adults explanation of the rules will be different.Young "English" well acquired knowledge, if they are present with elements of games and stories.For example, it can be explained by type 1 and 2 read as "open" and "closed" doors, where in the first case letters feel free and scream your name (of the alphabet) loud, while the second - almost unheard of.Similarly, you can compose a kind of grammatical and tell the tale of her child.Interactive elements can be a task, "spell" words, reading them correctly.So it is much easier and more interesting to remember the rules of reading in English.
For elementary school
offered a small table below includes the rules of reading of vowels in two types of syllables.For the convenience of the child, new to transcription is placed near the sound of it about reading, written in Russian letters.In any case, the table should be read aloud with an adult who knows the language: it is necessary to pay attention to how the same letter behaves in different types of syllables, and to understand the example sentences of words.
primary school students are often asked to teach home icons transcription.You can make a set of cards and work out this way: you're reading a short word, where there is a certain sound, and the child shows the card with its label.When group work, each had its own set.
as quickly as possible and better remember the rules of reading in English?For beginners, the exercises will be the best option.Well, if you can combine the two types of activities: listening to samples and read on their own.However, this approach may soon become bored, so it would be good to connect the elements of the game and the competition.For example, take two different lists of words in a variety of rules - one for you and one for the other - and check who will read faster and with fewer errors.The gaming version can be: using mixed cards with words and with icons transcription find and put compliance.
who need rules for reading in English?For beginners to learn it (it goes without saying) to continue - to test yourself and forgotten - to remember for a long time not to use the knowledge.