Modern views on control theory, which laid the foundation for the scientific management school, are very diverse.The article tells about the leading international management schools and founders of management.
management has a long history, but the theory of management began to develop only in the beginning of XX century.The emergence of management science is considered to be a credit to Frederick Taylor (1856-1915 gg.).The founder of the school of scientific management, Taylor, along with other researchers has begun studying ways and means of management.
revolutionary ideas about management, motivation arose before, but have not been claimed.For example, a very successful was the project of Robert Owen (the beginning of XIX century).His factory in Scotland brings more profit by creating working conditions that motivate people to work effectively.Workers and their families are provided with housing, working in better conditions, encouraged prizes.But the businessmen of the time were not prepared to follow Owen.
In 1885, in parallel with the school Taylor emerged empirical school, whose representatives (Drucker, Ford, Simons) were of the opinion that management is an art.A successful leadership can only be based on experience and intuition, but it is not science.
It was in the United States at the beginning of the XX century there were favorable conditions in which the beginning of the evolution of scientific management schools.In a democratic country it has formed a huge labor market.Access to education has helped many smart people to show their quality.The development of transport, the economy contributed to the strengthening of the monopolies with tiered management structure.It requires new ways of governance.In 1911 a book was published by Frederick Taylor's "Principles of Scientific Management," marked the beginning of research in the field of new science - management.
school of scientific management Taylor (1885-1920 gg.)
father of modern management Frederick Taylor proposed and codified the laws of the rational organization of work.Through research, he denounced the idea that labor should be studied scientifically.
- Taylor The novelties are the methods of motivation, piecework wages, holidays and breaks in production, timing, valuation, professional selection and training, the introduction of the cards with the rules of the work.
- Together with followers Taylor proved that the use of observations, measurements and analyzes will help to facilitate manual labor to make it more perfect.The introduction of executable specifications and standards enables more effective to raise the salary to workers.
- Supporters school did not ignore the human factor.Introduction of ways to stimulate it possible to increase the motivation of workers to increase productivity.
- Taylor dismembered labor practices, divided leadership functions (organization and planning) of the actual work.Representatives of the school of scientific management believed that perform management functions should be people with this specialty.They were of the opinion that the concentration of different groups of employees on the fact what they are capable of, making the organization successful.
system created by Taylor, considered more applicable to the grass roots management positions at diversification, expansion of production.The school of scientific management Taylor has created a scientific foundation to replace outdated work practices.For supporters of the school belonged to researchers such as F. and L. Gilbert, G. Gantt, Weber, G. Emerson, H. Ford, G. Grant, OAYermansky.
development of scientific management school
Frank and Lillian Gilbreth studied the factors influencing productivity.To capture movement during operations they used a movie camera and the instrument of his own invention (mikrohronometr).The research allowed to change the course of work by eliminating unnecessary traffic.
Gilbreath standards and equipment used in manufacturing, which further led to the emergence of the working standards that have implemented scientific management school.F. Gilbreth studied the factors influencing productivity.He broke them into three groups:
- variable factors associated with health, lifestyle, physique cultural level, education.
- Variable factors related to working conditions, environment, materials, equipment and tools.
- variables relative to the speed of movement: speed, efficiency, automaticity, and others.
The studies Gilbert came to the conclusion that the factors are the most important movement.
main provisions of the school of scientific management have been finalized by Max Weber.The scientist formulated six principles for rational functioning of the enterprise, which lies in the rational, instructing, rationing, the division of labor, specialization, managers, regulating functions and subordinated to a common goal.
school of scientific management F. Taylor and his case was continued contribution of Henry Ford, complementing the principles of Taylor to standardize all processes in the production of dividing operations into steps.Ford mechanized and synchronized production, organize it according to the principle of the conveyor, whereby the production cost decreased by 9 times.
first scientific school of management have become a reliable foundation for the development of management science.Taylor's School of distinguished not only many strengths, but also weaknesses: the study of the control angle of the mechanical approach, motivation through satisfaction of the utilitarian needs of the workers.
Administrative (classical) school of scientific management (1920-1950.)
Administrative School initiated the development of the principles and functions of management, the search for a systematic approach to improve management efficiency throughout the enterprise.A significant contribution to its development made by A. Fayolle, J. Mooney, Urwick L., A. Ginsburg, A. Sloan, A. Gastev.The birth of the administrative school associated with the name of Henri Fayol, who worked more than 50 years for the benefit of the French company in the field of processing of coal and iron ore.Dindall Urwick served as a management consultant in England.James Mooney worked under Alfred Sloan in the "General Motors".
scientific and administrative management of the school have evolved in different directions, but complemented each other.Supporters of the administration of the school considers its main purpose to achieve efficiency of the entire organization as a whole, using the universal principles.The researchers were able to look at the company from the standpoint of long-term development and have identified common characteristics of all firms and laws.
Faiola In the book "Industrial and General Administration" Management was first described as a process that includes a number of functions (planning, organization, motivation, regulation and control).
Fayolle formulated the 14 universal principles that allow the company to achieve success:
- division of labor;
- combination of authority and responsibility;
- maintaining discipline;
- unity of command;
- common direction;
- subordination of its own interests to collective interests;
- reward employees;
- chain interaction;
- stable jobs;
- promotion initiatives;
- corporate spirit.
School of Human Relations (1930-1950.)
Classical schools of management did not include one of the key elements of a successful organization - the human factor.Disadvantages of previous approaches allowed the neoclassical school.Her significant contribution to the development of management was the use of knowledge about interpersonal relationships.Movement for human relations and behavioral science - this is the first scientific school of management, who used to achieve psychology and sociology.The development of the school of human relations started by two scholars: Mary Parker Follett and Elton Mayo.
Miss Follett first came to the conclusion that the management is to ensure that the work with the help of other people.She believed that a manager should not only formally treated with subordinates, but should be their leader.
Mayo proved through experiments that clear regulations, instructions and decent wages do not always lead to higher productivity, he considered the founder of the school of scientific management Taylor.Relations in the collective efforts of the often superior.For example, the opinion of colleagues may be more important to employee motivation than the specified manager or financial reward.Due Mayo originated social philosophy of management.
their experiments Mayo is carried out for 13 years at the plant in Horton.He proved that change people's attitudes to work may be due to the influence of the group.Mayo advised to use in the management of the spiritual incentives, such as employee communication with colleagues.He urged leaders to pay attention to relationships in the team.
«Hortonskie experiments" were the beginning:
- study of collective relations in many companies;
- accounting group of psychological phenomena;
- detection of motivation;
- studies of human relations;
- determine the role of each staff member and a small group in the working collective.
School of Behavioral Sciences (1930-1950.)
End of the 50s - a period of rebirth of the school of human relations school of behavioral sciences.In the first place came not the methods of building interpersonal relationships, and the effectiveness of the employee and the company as a whole.Behavioural scientific approaches and school management have led to a new management functions - human resources management.By
significant figures of this area are: Douglas McGregor, Frederick Herzberg, Chris Argyris, Likert Rensisa.The object of research scientists have become social interactions, motivation, power, leadership, and authority, organizational structures, communication, quality of working life and work.The new approach departed from the method of establishing relations in groups, and focused on helping the employee to realize them its own capabilities.Concept of behavioral sciences have been used in the creation of organizations and management.Supporters formulated aim of the school: the high efficiency of the enterprise due to the high efficiency of its human resources.
Douglas McGregor developed a theory about the two types of control "X" and "Y" depending on the type of relationship to his subordinates: autocratic and democratic.The outcome of the study was the conclusion that the democratic style of management is more effective.McGregor believed that managers must create an environment in which the employee did not just spend effort to achieve the goals of the enterprise, but also to achieve personal goals.
major contribution to the development of the school made a psychologist Abraham Maslow, who created a pyramid of needs.He believed that the manager must see the need for slave and select suitable methods of motivation.Maslow identified primary permanent needs (physiological) and secondary (social, prestige, spiritual), is constantly changing.This theory became the basis for many of today's motivational model.
school quantitative approach (1950)
weighty contribution to the school was the use of mathematical models in management and a variety of quantitative methods in the development of management decisions.Among the supporters of the school isolated R. Ackoff, Bertalanffy, R. Kalman S. Forrestra E. Rife, St. Simon.Direction is intended to implement the management of the main schools of management, methods and apparatus of the exact sciences.
emergence of school was due to the development of cybernetics and operations research.Within the school there was an independent discipline - the theory of management decisions.Research of this area are related to the development of:
- methods of mathematical modeling in the development of organizational solutions;
- algorithms for selecting optimal solutions using statistics, game theory and other scientific approaches;
- mathematical models for phenomena in applied economics and abstract nature;
- scale models that simulate the society or individual firms balance models cost or output, models for forecasting scientific, technological and economic development.
Modern scientific management school can not be imagined without the achievements of the empirical school.Its representatives believed that the main objective of research in the field of management should be the collection of materials and practical recommendations for the creation of leaders.Prominent representatives of the schools became Peter Drucker, Ray Davies, Lawrence Newman, Don Miller.
School contributed to a separate allocation management profession and has two directions.The first - the study of problems and implementation of enterprise management development of modern management concepts.The second - a study of job duties and responsibilities of managers."Empiricists" claimed that the head of certain resources creates a unity.In making decisions, it focuses on the future of the company or its prospects.
Any director is intended to perform certain functions:
- setting goals of the enterprise and choice of development paths;
- classification, distribution of work, the establishment of the organizational structure, personnel recruitment and placement, and others;
- stimulation and coordination of personnel, supervision on the basis of relations between managers and the staff;
- valuation analysis of the enterprise and all those employed on it;
- motivation depending on the outcome of the work.
Thus, the activity of the modern manager becomes complex.The manager should have knowledge from different fields and apply methods proven.The school allowed a number of significant management problems arising everywhere on a large industrial production.
School social systems
social achievements of the school school uses "human relations" and considers the employee as a person having a social orientation and needs are reflected in the organizational environment.Among the enterprises also affects the education needs of the employee.
the bright representatives of the school include Jane March, Herbert Simon, Amitai Etzioni.This trend in the study of the situation and of man's place in the organization has gone further than other schools of management.Briefly express the postulate of "social systems" as follows: the needs of the individual and collective needs is usually far apart.
Thanks to the work of man is able to meet their needs through level after level, moving higher in the hierarchy of needs.But the essence of the organization is such that it often contradicts the transition to the next level.Emerging barriers to the movement of personnel to their goals cause conflicts now.The task of the school - to reduce their power with the help of research institutions like the complex socio-technical systems.
Human Resource Management
History of "human resource management" refers to the 60-th years of XX century.Model sociologist Robert Milles considered as a source of reserve personnel.According to the theory, improved management should not become the main purpose is to preach schools of management.Briefly meaning of "human management" can be expressed as follows: needs should be the result of a personal interest of each employee.
Great company always manages to retain excellent employees.Therefore, the human factor is an important strategic factor for the organization.This is a vital condition for survival in a difficult market environment.The objectives of this type of management is not just the hiring and promotion of the development and training of professional staff, to effectively implement organizational goals.