Teacher education - a system developed for the training of general and pre-school, primary, basic and secondary education.Also trained teachers of general subjects and vocational schools, teachers institutions engaged in additional education of children, social workers and others.If we consider this term in a broad sense, it is often used when talking about the training of all those who are related to the upbringing and education of the younger generation (parents included).
Teacher Education of the Russian Federation is characterized by high demands of professional activity, as well as to the personality of the teacher, the teacher as the subject of the educational process and pedagogical communication.
Therefore, the process of preparation of qualified personnel must be treated very seriously.Modern teacher training focused on two tasks.Firstly, the need to promote the socio-valuable personal development of the future teacher, his civic and moral maturity, general culture, fundamental training.Secondly, it is necessary to promote the specialization and professional development in the chosen field of teaching.We can say that the full development of the personality of the teacher - is the goal, the foundation and the condition of ensuring the effectiveness of the training of future teachers.
history of teacher education in Russia began in the XIX century.Then, the system was presented to the specialized professional training in the church-teachers, teachers 'seminary teachers and second-class schools, courses for lower secondary education in the diocesan school and a girls' school, as well as additional training, which was carried out on special pedagogical courses.
were open educational institutions of the University required for the training of teachers of district schools and gymnasiums.Teaching them lasted for 3 years, and then increased to four years since 1835.Each teacher was preparing to teach a number of subjects.
since 1859 was organized another model for training teachers who already had university education.Opened teacher training courses for graduates of Physics, Mathematics and History and Philology.Historical and Philological Institute in the beautiful ancient city (founded in 1875) and St. Petersburg (1867) released in the second half of the XIX century, most of the teachers for the classical school.These public schools were equal to the universities.
In Russia, there was a set of preconditions for the emergence of higher education in the late XIX and early XX century.Teacher education and science have received adequate development in this period of time, many scientists engaged in theoretical adherence (VP Wachter, VP Kapterev, Bekhterev, and others.).
The universities at the beginning of the XX century there were two concepts we are considering education.The first of these was based on the idea of providing training in the pedagogical faculties or departments of pedagogy.It was supposed to combine theoretical studies and research work.In order to organize the teaching practice at the faculty to establish subsidiary institutions.The second concept involves education after university and focused on research and development.
At the same time, there is a model of teacher education, which is called integral.Training is aligned to higher education.Two years in the form of lectures given general scientific education, for it was followed by teaching practice in elementary school or high school.
in the RSFSR after the revolution prevailed 2 versions of teacher education.The first of them - a stationary training institutions (technical schools and teacher training institutes).The content of education was aimed at the implementation of political tasks.The second option - a massive short-term courses.They were organized to eliminate illiteracy and mass political propaganda.
At the beginning of the 1930s.Much attention was paid to the training of future teachers the fundamentals of Marxism-Leninism, physical education and military training and pedagogy was given about 10% of instructional time.In 1935 the People's Commissariat introduced in all faculties new curricula (except historical).Much time was given to master pedagogical skills, counseling and elective courses.The state began to treat the teacher as an ideological workers.The main objective of the training was to prepare teachers who are imbued with the ideas of communism.
in the 30s each autonomous republic had a teacher education institute.In 1956, the Teachers' Institute, which gave an incomplete higher education are transformed into schools and teacher training institutions, the training which lasted 5 years.
Education in post-Soviet period
Since 1990, actively developed the reform of teacher education.A new stage, which is characterized by the fact that the management of this process is no longer wearing politicized.Teacher education has been the object of legal regulation.The basis of the renewed Russian education is student-centered approach to each student.It also seeks to ensure the integrity of programs targeting education and training in human values, professional and personal development of the future teachers.History teacher education shows that it is undergoing many difficulties, absorbing all the best.
main directions of education today
modern pedagogical education is evolving towards universality.It tries to promote the full development of human culture and its implementation.This corresponds to the present stage of development of society.
becoming increasingly urgent solution of socially significant problems of teacher education institutions, the analysis of the educational practices and assist in the development of educational infrastructure in the region (it is supported by the natural needs of the regions of the country in the creation of centers of culture and education).
special role of this kind of training is to ensure that one of the fundamental human rights of our time - the right to education under the condition of protection of learners, especially children, from incompetence on the part of adults, starting with parents and ending with teachers, educators professional sphere.
In the XXI century there was a shift to a two-tier model of bachelor's and master's degrees.Teacher Education of the Russian Federation is built into the European educational space.
In today's world people have access to an unlimited amount of information.Significant became ability to extract meaning grope relationships, solve problems, conceive and implement projects to make non-trivial action.
pedagogical problems of education is to prepare professionals able to work on the formation of personality in terms of innovative development and modernization of having socially-oriented view of the world.Modern teacher training institutions are required to prepare graduates who are able to work on the development of the individual who is the subject of multicultural civil society, integrated in the national and global community.
trend of training of future teachers on the basis of a modular principle and the competency approach in training also creates the problem of teacher education since the program should be changed in accordance with the new requirements of the reality.Today, a lot of time in the training given to students of the theory, in practice it is given very little time.There is need for universities to work together with schools and colleges to focus on getting the students and a good experience.
relationship with science
Teacher Education and Science try to keep up, although this is not always possible.The development of science is faster, innovation is not always fast enough embedded in the education system.Recently, however, used a lot of new teaching methods.Computers that are equipped with high-quality training programs can perfectly cope with the problem management process.Apply the latest scientific research, experimental platforms, methods and technologies of education and self-education.
Preschool teacher education
program for training of preschool education designed to meet the requirements of reality.Preschool teacher education pays great attention to pre-school, general, cognitive psychology and pedagogy.Graduates of the training will be able to apply their knowledge in public and private education institution, at the center of development of children in pre-school, secondary education, additional training in the center of children's creativity, as well as to carry out independent teaching activity (tutor, babysitting, head of the children's center, kindergarten).
preschool teacher spends with the children education and educational work, creates the conditions for a comfortable life of children during their stay in preschool, trying to discover the individual characteristics of children.He also reveals the intricacies of the relationship of parents, organizes consultations, conducts various prevention activities (meetings, workshops).
This concept involves the formation of a person who is able to effectively realize themselves in the areas of primary and secondary vocational education, may make all the components of integrative educational process, perform a full range of professional and educational functions.Teacher education and professional and pedagogical interrelated, but recently has become more common.
additional pedagogical education is necessary to improve the qualifications of teachers.Also, it assists refresher training which is required to update their professional knowledge, improve business skills, preparation for implementation of the new labor functions.In addition, a further training of students and part-time full-time education.
Thus, we can say that teacher education - a multi-layered and complex process-oriented training of professionals and teachers with a capital letter, which will be able to live up to their hopes on training and education of the new generation.