zone of deciduous forests located in Manchuria, the Far East, within the temperate zone of Europe, eastern China, North America.It also affects the southern part of South America and some parts of Central Asia.
Broad-leaved forests are most common where reigns a moderately warm climate, and the ratio of moisture and heat - optimal.This provides favorable conditions during the growing season.Sheet plate from trees growing there are wide, hence the name of the forest.What other features has said natural area?Broad-leaved forests are home to many animals, reptiles, birds and insects.
Features deciduous forests lie in the fact that they are two distinct tiers.One of them - the higher, the other - lower.These forests shrub, grass growing are available in three tiers, ground cover is represented by lichens and mosses.
Another feature is a light regime.In these forests emit two light maximum.The first occurs in the spring, when the trees are not yet covered by foliage.Second - in the fall when the foliage thins.In summer, light penetration is minimal.It explains the features of the above modes of grass cover.
Soil broadleaf forests rich in organic and mineral compounds.They are the result of the decomposition of plant litter.Trees deciduous forests contain ashes.Especially a lot of it in the leaves - some five percent.Ash, in turn, is rich in calcium (twenty percent of the total volume).It also includes a potassium (approximately two percent) and silicon (up to three per cent).
Trees deciduous forests
Forests of this type are characterized by a rich diversity of tree species.The latest you can count about a dozen.Broad-leaved forests of the taiga, for example, is not so rich in this regard.The reason is that the harsh climate of the taiga not have the growth and development of the flora.Many demanding composition of the soil and climate tree species will not survive in adverse conditions.
in the southern part of the Tula region is the famous forest.He gives a great idea of what could be the broad-leaved forests.The soil of this area is favorable for the growth of such trees as petiolate oaks, small-leaved lime, aquifolium and field maples, common ash, elm, elm, wild apple and pear trees.Oaks and ash highest, followed aquifolium maples, elms and linden.Lowest - field maple, wild pear and apple trees.As a rule, the dominant position is occupied by oak and other trees act as satellites.
consider in more detail the above mentioned representatives dendroflora.
- Oak.It is light coniferous broad-leaved forests in the European territory.English oak - one of the most dolgorastuschih and large trees.It is found on private plots in single plantings.With the ability to carry pruning Oak Beautiful tapeworms can be formed with spherical, obovate, shatrovidnymi crown shape.
- Elm.Smooth and rough species are found in the forests of non-black areas.These large trees constitute overriding tier coniferous-deciduous and deciduous forests.Previously widely used for landscaping, but in recent years this trend has decreased due to the spread of such diseases as Dutch elm disease.
- European ash.The plant reaches thirty or forty meters in height.For this tree is characterized by fairly straight trunk, the bark is light gray (with time darkens), loose openwork koruna, passed a lot of sunlight.The root system has a very extensive, powerful, dense and paniculate inflorescences.The distinguishing feature - high demands to the composition of the soil.European ash is a major species of field-protective breeding.This heat and photophilous plant, spring frosts carries bad.Flowering ash takes place in May, the process of pollination is done by the wind.Time of fruit ripening - October-November.They fall or winter or early spring.
- Beech Forest.Continuing listing what trees grow in deciduous woods, one can not mention it.It reaches forty meters high and one and a half meters in diameter.Beech bark is light gray, elliptical leaves.Most of the territory of distribution - west of Europe, the Caucasus, the Crimea.The main value of beech forest is its fruit.Nutritional nuts ripen in September-October.They almost thirty percent semidrying composed of fatty oil, the same amount - of nitrogenous substances.Valuable fruits are also rich in starch, sugar, acids (citric and malic), tannins.Interestingly, the poisonous alkaloid called fagin tends to decompose when roasting nuts.So it is absolutely safe for human health.From fruits produce a substitute for coffee in ground form they are added to ordinary flour in the preparation of bakery products.Beech wood is a beautiful and durable decorative material.
- Maple.Broad-leaved forests, located in the European part of Russia and the Caucasus, characterized as favorable growing environment aquifolium (common), maples.These trees grow up to twenty meters in height.Their leaves are large, dark green, with five lobes.Crust color - gray.Stems and leaves of this tree are widely used for the treatment of various ailments.These gifts of nature contains a large amount of ascorbic acid, alkaloids, tannins.Decoctions and infusions treat wounds, inflammation.They also produce a choleretic, diuretic, antiseptic and analgesic effect.Proponents of herbal medicine knows what broadleaf trees in the forest are most useful.So, maple leaves and shoots are recommended for effective treatment of jaundice, kidney stones, to get rid of nausea and vomiting.
Plants deciduous forests are characterized by large and broad leaf plates.For this reason they are called shirokotraviem oak.Some herbs grow a single instance, they never form impenetrable thickets.Others, however, form a kind of carpet covering large areas.These herbs are dominant.Among them are ground elder, hairy sedge and Zelenchuk yellow.
Most herbaceous plants existing in the deciduous forests, is a perennial.They live up to several decades.As a rule, their existence is maintained by vegetative propagation.They breed bad seeds.A characteristic feature of these plants - long underground and aboveground shoots grow rapidly in different directions and are actively exciting new plots of land.
aerial parts of most members of oakwood shirokotravya die in autumn.Overwinter only in the soil the roots and rhizomes.They arranged special buds from which new shoots are produced in spring.
exception to the rule
Rare representatives shirokotravya remain green in winter and summer.These plants include: wild ginger, Zelenchuk, hairy sedge.
For these flora, in their deciduous forests meet very difficult.They just are not peculiar to the groves, but not so on the coniferous forests, where bushes grow everywhere.The most widely blackberries and cranberries.
«Hurried" rejoice ephemeroids
These plants are for experts studying the forest flora, the greatest interest.Among them, lesser celandine, buttercup anemone, Corydalis different types and gagea.These plants are usually small in size, but they are developing very quickly.Ephemeroids hurry to be born immediately after the disappearance of the snow cover.Some particularly frisky shoots make their way even through the snow.A week later, a maximum of two, now shoot forth their buds.A few weeks later it matures fruits and seeds.The plants lodge on the ground, turn yellow, then that part of them that is above the ground dies.Moreover, this process takes place at the beginning of the summer period, when, as it may seem, the conditions for the growth and development of the most favorable.The secret is simple.In ephemeroids their rhythm of life, different from the kind of chart the development of other plants.They bloom to full flower in the spring and summer for them - it's time to decay.
most conducive to their development period - early spring.At this time of year in the forest there is a maximum amount of light as the bushes and the trees have not yet found a thick green cover.Furthermore, in this period optimally soil saturated.As for the high summer temperatures, the ephemeroids it does not need.All these plants are perennial.They do not die after their aerial part dries up.Living underground roots presented tubers, bulbs or rhizomes.These bodies act repositories of nutrients, mainly starch.That is why the stems, leaves and flowers appear so early and grow so rapidly.
ephemeroids are common in deciduous oak forests plants.In total there are about ten species.Their flowers are painted in bright purple, blue, yellow color.During flowering ephemeroids form a beautiful thick carpet.
Russia Broad-leaved forests are home to various species of moss growth.In contrast, boreal forests in which these plants form a dense green soil cover in oak moss shrouded the soil is not as widespread.The role of the moss in deciduous forests rather modest.The main reason is the fact that the broad-leaved forest leaf litter detrimental effect on these plants.
Animals deciduous forests of Russia - this ungulates, carnivores, insectivores, rodents and bats.The greatest diversity is observed in those territories, which are not touched by man.Thus, in the deciduous forests, you can see deer, wild boar, fallow deer, sika and red deer, moose.Troop predators represented by foxes, wolves, marten, weasel.Broad-leaved forests, fauna which is rich and varied, are home to beavers, squirrels, muskrats and nutria.In addition, these areas are inhabited by mice, rats, moles, hedgehogs, shrews, snakes, lizards and marsh turtles.
Birds deciduous forests - larks, finches, warblers, tits, flycatchers, swallows, starlings.It is also home to ravens, rooks, grouse, woodpeckers, crossbills, jackdaws, grouse.Birds of prey are represented hawks, owls, owls, owl and lunyami.Marshes - home to shorebirds, cranes, herons, gulls, ducks and geese.
In the past, broad-leaved forests were inhabited by bison.Now, unfortunately, it is a few tens of individuals.These animals are protected by law.They live in the Bialowieza Forest (Belarus) in the Oka terraced Reserve (Russian Federation), in some countries in Western Europe and Poland.Several animals were transported to the Caucasus.There they are combined with bison.
The number of deer has also undergone a change.They became much less because of the barbaric acts of man.Massive deforestation and plowing fields become detrimental to these beautiful animals.Deer can reach two meters in length and three hundred and forty kilogram.They usually live in small herds of up to ten animals.Headship in most cases is a female.Together with her lives and her offspring.
Autumn sometimes collect a kind of harem males.Reminiscent of a trumpet, their roar is carried on three to four kilometers around.The most successful deer, won in battles his rivals could gather around him to twenty females.So it formed another type of deer herds.At the beginning of the summer season, deer are born young.They are born weighing eight to eleven kilograms.Before six months have seen intensive growth.Yearling males acquire horns.
Deer eat grass, leaves and shoots of trees, fungi, lichens, reed, wormwood.But the needles of them in food is not necessary.In the wild deer live about fifteen years.In captivity, this figure will be doubled.
Beavers - another inhabitants of deciduous forests.The most favorable conditions for them there are in Europe, North America and Asia.The maximum recorded weight of this animal - thirty kilos and the length of the body - one meter.Bobrov distinguishes massive body and flattened tail.Webbing between the fingers of the hind legs to help keep the water lifestyle.Fur color varies from light brown to black.Lubricating its fur special secret, beavers are protected from getting wet.When immersed in water, the ears of the animal are added, and the nostrils are closed.Economical use of air helps him stay under water up to fifteen minut.Bobry prefer to settle on the shores of lakes and oxbow lakes and slow flowing rivers.They are attracted by the abundant coastal and aquatic vegetation.Housing beavers burrow or a kind of hut, the entrance to which is under the water surface.Dam construction in these animals when the water level constant.Thanks to these facilities is regulated runoff, allowing a home to fall out of the water.Peregryzanie branches and even large trees beavers given easily.Thus, aspen five to seven centimeters in diameter, susceptible to these animals for two minutes.Their favorite food - cane.In addition, they are not averse to eat iris, water lily, egg capsules.Beavers live in families.Youngsters go in search of a pair of the third year of life.
Wild pigs - another typical inhabitants of deciduous forests.They have a huge head and a very strong long snout.These animals are powerful weapons - sharp triangular teeth that are bent upwards and backwards.Eyesight boar is not very good, but this is offset by excellent hearing and keen sense of smell.Large specimens weigh three hundred kilos.The body of this animal is protected bristles dark brown.She's very strong.
Boars - excellent runners and swimmers.These animals can overcome swimming pond, a width of several kilometers.The basis of their diet are the plants, but we can say that pigs are omnivores.Their favorite food - acorns and beech nuts, they will not refuse from frogs, mice, chicks, insects and snakes.
broadleaf forest inhabited Adders, ASP, copperhead, veretennitsami, and green lizard.The risk to humans represent only a viper.Many people mistakenly believe that Coronella also poisonous, but it is not.The most numerous reptiles deciduous forests - snakes.
zone of deciduous forests (and mixed) in the European part of Russia svoebrazny forms a triangle, the base of which is located at the western borders of the country, and rests on the top of the Ural Mountains.Since this area was not once covered by continental ice during the Quaternary period, its topography mostly hilly.The most obvious signs of the presence of the Valdai glacier survived in the north-west.There's zone of deciduous and mixed forests is characterized by a chaotic heap of hills, steep ridges, closed lakes and basins.The southern part of the territory described is represented by secondary moraine plains, which were formed due to the reduction of the inclined surface hilly areas.Relief mixed and deciduous forests is characterized by sandy plains of different sizes.Their origin - of water-glacial.They have a wavy, sometimes you can find a pronounced sand dunes.
coniferous-deciduous forests of the Russian Plain
This zone is located in the temperate climate zone.The climate is relatively mild and humid.The soil of these areas of sod-podzolic.The proximity of the Atlantic Ocean led to the topography.The river network in coniferous-deciduous forest is well developed.Reservoirs differ large area.
activity caused waterlogging of the proximity of groundwater and humid climate.