exact science, even before their "official" appearance of human life played a huge role.So, without the primitive geometry could not build a little bit difficult house, and without as simple math to do this was very problematic.Besides the category of concerns and geodesy (though it is the natural sciences).This is not surprising, because the layout of the earth man started far from ancient.
scientific definition of the way, and how to decipher the name of this discipline?The term "surveying" - a conglomerate of two Greek words.The first of these ge, which means the land, and the second - dazomai, - as it is easy to assume, means "to separate, to divide."If you try to literally translate the name completely, you get "zemlerazdelenie."In principle, during the initial origin and development of surveying such a transfer is fully consistent with the truth.
So the Egyptians for many centuries before our era already performed complex geodetic measurements, building their famous pyramids and irrigation canals.
development of science
But surveying - it is a complex science that is directly related to its development under the influence of the outside world.The fact that human civilization has grown and developed, she needed more and more accurate ways to measure the earth.Even the challenges that confront geodesy life became more complex and significant.
definition in the modern world
Since today understand the term 'surveying'?It is a science that deals with the study of methods of land surveying, determining the size and shape of terrain.It surveyors scientists are developing new ways of applying the entire continent is at stake.
In addition, surveying teaches various methods of measurement of space, not only on the surface of our planet, but also under water, on land and even in outer space and on other planets.In short, this is a very diverse scientific branch.
very famous scientist Witkowski gave this definition: "I must say that it is - one of the most useful branches of knowledge; in fact, our whole existence is limited expanses of the Earth, to study the structure and the device that we have to the same extent as the person to learn somethingsomething new for the house where he lives. "
Note that the task of geodesy is very diverse as this science is constantly evolving, it added more and more new terms.In addition, currently there is a complete computerization of many branches of knowledge, which could not but have an effect on the development of the surveying.Simply put, its tasks are divided into two large groups.The first - fundamental.These include the following activities:
- certain size, configuration and extension of Earth's gravitational field.In this case, extremely important azimuth.The so-called geodesy some guidance from space (very simplified definition).
- distribution of a single system of coordinates on the territory of the state, continent or the world in general.Image
- land on different topographic plans, maps and atlases.
- In addition, surveyors engaged in the study of large-scale displacement of the earth's crust.
works of applied
Thus, the second group of tasks currently include the following types of work:
- extremely important process of creation and implementation of GIS, ie, geographic information systems.
- It also includes the establishment and registration of different types of cadastral plans: land, water, and so on. D.
- Geodetic and topographic software state as a whole.
- demarcation of the border, participation in resolving disputes that require surveying.Maps compiled by competent experts, could be a decisive argument in many disputes.
- Creating and ubiquitous common standards in digital mapping industry.
- Accordingly, here also include the development of electronic maps themselves, and filling them with all the necessary data.
- It is the surveyors is working on an operating time of satellite technology in determining the coordinates and their exact relation to the actual terrain.
- Finally, the creation of the integrated geodetic Atlas of Russia and other countries.
division into industry
Since surveying to date is extremely complicated, it was decided to divide it into several independent science, which sometimes completely studying different areas of knowledge.Let's list them in more detail and give a brief description of each:
- Higher Geodesy.It is the cornerstone.As part of this science study the size, the shape, the structure of the Earth, its position in space and the characteristics of its gravitational field.That this industry has been the imposition of a coordinate system on the state, a continent or the entire surface of the planet.In addition, scientists in this field are studying the earth's crust shifts from ancient times to the present day, as well as learn about the characteristics of the gravitational field of various celestial bodies, from stars to large asteroids.Industry has also studied the system of coordinates in geodesy.
- topography.Again, a term created from the two Greek words: "topos" - a place "column" - write, write.If translated literally, it turns "the study, a description of the terrain."Accordingly, the industry creates new methods and techniques for drawing the outlines of the earth's surface at the plans, atlases and maps.
- Cartography.Closely correlated with previous science.Learning how to create and use all the same maps, atlases and topographical plans.
- Photogrammetry.As the name implies, this science studies geodetic methods for creating documents (as described above) by means of a photographic survey the Earth's surface from a plane or helicopter (or satellite).
- Engineering industry (surveying in construction).The most popular at the moment the industry, as its specialists conduct geodetic surveys before beginning any construction of engineering structures on the ground.
- Mine Surveying (underground surveying).Patrimony of the miners, as studied and created new ways of measuring in underground mines and mines.
Of course, in most cases the boundaries between all these sciences is very, very blurred.For instance, the topography associated with both cartography and geodesy with the highest and the engineering industry and can not develop without further studying the materials of the related sciences.
Who needs the practical results of this science in everyday life?
If you have read all the above, it is already convinced yourself how diverse the tasks that must be solved surveyors daily.They fulfill a lot of requirements neobhodimopostoyanno both public and especially private firms, since the same surveying in building today is used throughout, and the approach to it is very strict.
Even in matters of national importance to scientists often take several years to conduct a detailed survey, whose results are often put an end to the historical claims to certain territories.Of course, particularly important in this case, the coordinate system of geodesy, because it is based on them made binding to the current location.About
Actually, all surveying instruments are necessary for all categories of persons who are regularly on duty or the work moved on land and water over long distances: the sailors and geologists, geographers, planners, builders and the military.
especially cards and similar documents are needed as time army is powerful engineering and construction of fortifications and shooting at long distances, and the launch of missile technology without these data is not possible.Finally, it is impossible to imagine the planning of military operations without accurate maps and location plans.So that all the military has to know at least the basics of geodesy.
It should be especially noted that this teaching can not be imagined in isolation from other sciences, who are studying our planet.So, it is particularly important physics, geology and geophysics, which may explain the particularly complex and important processes taking place on the surface of our planet, and under it.Without Oceanography impossible to learn the principles of motion of the earth's crust.Even botany - and that can be very useful.
amazing how versatile it may be surveying!Working professionals also requires a deep knowledge of mathematics and geometry, without which it would be impossible to carry out even the primitive calculations.But surveying the leader among all of these industries, as it allows to monitor all stages of the development of our planet and the formation of its current appearance, and taking into account not only the natural but also man-made landforms.
Communication with other branches of scientific knowledge
In addition, this science is constantly evolving, absorbing the knowledge that give a person the other branches.For example, the invented laser physics.Over time, this led to the development and creation of the most valuable instruments, without which it is difficult to imagine a modern surveyor: laser levels and svetodalnomerov.
As for the same-precision measurements of the motion of tectonic plates, they would have been physically impossible to carry out, if not for the rapid development of electronics and manufacturing.
Finally, the rapid development of information technology and programming have given geodesy such opportunities, which previously could only dream: for example, you can create sophisticated computer models that clearly show the development of the shape of the planet for centuries.In this case, the engineer-surveyor can feel like a historian!
Toughening requirements of modern geodesy
huge construction of engineering structures unique demands of professionals such degree of precision not previously used even in mathematical calculations.For example, during the construction of the Large Hadron Collider experts had taken into account the displacement by hundredths of a millimeter at a length of some designs for a kilometer away!
In addition, it results from independent surveyors, whether people live in some regions of the Earth that are considered potentially earthquake-prone.
main types of work
After reading all this, surely the question arises of what is necessary to make surveying to get all these valuable information.Oh, a lot of them, but we will describe the most common and consistently performed.Here is a quick list:
- geodetic work.In this case the experts are engaged in building the stake scheme with location, as well as other operations that help bind to the terrain any stage of construction works: from the digging of pits and ending with commissioning.
- Executive shooting.As the building is erected or other engineering construction requires special complex of works.Mandatory and continuous shooting are subject to all of the structures that affect the stability and strength characteristics of the entire construction.The accuracy required in this case, in no case be less than that required to lay out the area prior to construction.
- Topographical survey.In this case, the engineer-surveyor shall conduct a range of activities aimed at a preliminary study of the relief of the place where it is planned to start construction of engineering structures.It includes not only the construction of a model area, but also synchronize relief and appearance of the building to be erected.
- Creating geodetic networks.Reconstruction, networking, and planning, development of new methods of work in this area.
As you can see, surveying not only very diverse, but also extremely important at all stages of construction.