question of what self-organization, is very interesting.Consider it in this article.Self-organizing systems - an irreversible process which results from the interaction of the various participants to the emergence of more effective structures.
study of society and nature shows that many open complex formation, which consist of a large number of subsystems that are capable under specific conditions to the evolution and self-organization.
history of the study of self-organization
for social and natural processes of self-importance has been studied, even at the theological or abstract philosophical level, since the days of Aristotle.Hundreds of papers have been written about how the world works, what lies the root cause of the stability and integrity of the universe has existed for billions of years.Especially urgent the problem began in the last century, in the second half.It is connected with the development of cybernetics.
in philosophy for a long time dominated look at this process as inherent in living systems only phenomenon.Self-organization in nature, for example - it is an organism, a living cell, biological populations.Watch a flock of birds, ants or bees, and you will understand what it is.
cybernetic understanding of self, that is the definition of it as a hierarchical centralized structure where the bottom receives information fed back only as the end result, and decide only at the top, was not able to reflect the actual functioning of the system, its complexity, and create a model of explanationprocesses that occur in complex associations.
Inside cybernetics in the second half of the 1950s, emerging non-classical trend established for the study of the different systems (self-organization of matter, society).In the framework of the mechanism it was located closer to synergetic than a cybernetic (which is considered a classic).Norbert Wiener, the founder of cybernetics, has become one of neklassikov who investigated the principle of self-organization.In the XX century, in the early 1960s, Tsetlin, Soviet scientist, wrote that if we consider governance as a way to address what is happening from the top down, the system will then be very difficult.Machines, given the rules of the game themselves find the necessary actions, without the need for instructions.This is, in his opinion, the principle of self-organization.
Synergetics as a discipline
Discipline synergy that emerged in the West, by 1975, was established as a new direction in science, very promising, significantly expands the range of different processes of self-organization, previously studied cybernetics.The works of this trend may be noted that the phenomenon of self-organization is considered as a universal for both abiotic and living systems.It was with the introduction to the science of the term "synergy" noted the emergence of two main approaches to the study of: a synergistic and cybernetic.The difference between these two concepts especially with regard to targeting system behavior that occurs when there are processes of self-organization.
Differences synergistic and cybernetic approach
cybernetic approach requires a certain objective in advance, to which the self seeks a system around which it organizes itself.Synergetic approach requires no purpose.From his perspective as an effect of cooperation between the different elements of the system manifested self-organization.
total two approaches
and Synergetics and Cybernetics attaches great importance to such a concept as "management", while pursuing different goals.Cybernetics develops methods and algorithms that allow you to manage this system so that it acted properly specify in advance.During the experiment, in synergy change in a certain way different control parameters, and self-organization being investigated as a reaction to them, that is, the various states in which the system transitions under the influence of her like levers.That is under the influence of a particular governing body of organized cybernetic system and its synergistic behavior does not directly affect the control parameters.They only trigger mechanism of the inner self.And synergies, and cybernetic systems behavior looks purposeful, but in the first case, the system itself chooses the path of development to the higher of the organization, while the second goal of the pre-specified.
Synergetics and self-organization
Today, the meaning of "self-organization" close to the concept of "synergy."They are often used interchangeably in science.In fact, these two concepts are studying the way in time and space there is an organization out of chaos (self-organization) and opposite phenomena (processes samodezorganizatsii), which can be observed in the systems of any nature, are complex, open, non-equilibrium and dynamic.Both of the above-mentioned mechanism (synergistic and cybernetic) have a common basis: Communications, spontaneously arisen between the elements, allowing to create the structure, the organization of the system due to be carried out without any control commands local interactions.
trend of self-organizing system
Initially, referring to the phenomenon of self-organization, present in complex systems, it is assumed their commitment to the homeostatic stability, preservation of integrity.It may be noted the following main trends in the behavior of a self-organizing associations: stay as far away from the state of chaos, maximum entropy, equilibrium.Synergetics, on the other hand, argue that there is no development without instability, it happens through accident, stress.Crises and instability contribute to the selection and identification of the best.The economic crisis, for example, disciplines, organizes, provides an opportunity for young and active to forge ahead, as lazy and weak - to give up their place in the market.The system, which can be considered good, as it knows no boundaries, potential instability in the region, allowed the stochasticity, and introduces itself to some laws in the state, activating the mechanisms of self-organization.That is, it fights entropy risk.
Self-organization of a system - is the process of changing its properties (or states) that occurs in no particular targeted the beginning, regardless of the source of goal-setting.Encourages its mechanisms causes can be both internal and external.It is typical for such things as self-organization in nature, society, or non-living systems.You can also talk about the elements of the process.
totality of self-organizing mechanisms
We have found that this self-organization in nature, non-living systems and society.What are its mechanisms?The totality of all the mechanisms of self-organization includes the selection, heredity, variation.This is what NN Moiseev, Academician, calls market.That it offers a lot of options, and stability, systemic laws and principles of selection choose the most effective ones.The market for Moses studied during one of Ricardo and Smith - is a special case of the so-called market universe.Nature could not come up with another scheme.Therefore, people have gone on well-trodden road, because some did not exist: the logic by which organizes the economy of nature and the human economy, is common.
Types of self
Sometimes scholars have identified social, biological and technical variety of self-organization, considering that the mechanisms they are based on different principles:
- social (self-organization) is based on a certain social program of harmonization of relations, including the laws, values andpriorities, which change over time;
- biological program is based on the preservation of the species (genetic), as well as the selection, heredity and variation (Darwinian triad);
- based on the technical program carried out automatically replace an algorithm of actions under varying conditions (autopilot, homing missiles, etc.).
Figuring out what self-organization, knowledge of the existing relationships between it and the organization of social systems - the most important task of science.In any company, the company, together with focused management, carried out by means of plans, documents, directives, instructions, regulations, there are always self-organization processes that are associated with the properties of the system as a whole, with particular synergies.So how much of this should be self-organization?Is there some general principles, there is the possibility of using the practical knowledge and modern language to develop recommendations in this regard?
Self-organization in social systems
known that the more rigid the control system is, the more there is less scope for self-organization and creativity.But letting go into free-swimming members of the system, we can not achieve our planned objectives.Self-organization of society, on the one hand, is achieved by unauthorized activities, informal cooperation.But on the other - thanks to well-organized, purposeful actions of managers, by a clearly designated purpose.
So, what is the self-organization in society?The evolution of social systems assumes the following:
- Have specific goals in advance, to which the self seeks system samoorganizuyas around this problem.They play a big role priorities of innovative development, creativity, professional growth, as well as raise the prestige of the respective work.
- Adaptability, flexibility and variability of the control structures.Displaces the administrative methods of social and psychological.Modern network flexible structures strengthen existing synergies, thereby providing an increase in the overall effect.Hierarchical hard left to the small possibility of self-organization.It manifests itself in the fact that the small independent units not related to daily activities bureaucratic structures that hinder coordination decisions both vertically and horizontally.
- decentralization, diversification, improvement of performance of a single party, to take ownership of each management solutions, as well as the motivation to work.
- different uses of information transmission, production facilities, know-how, knowledge, etc.
- Self-control, self-education, self-education.The firm should be created for this purpose certain conditions.
- Personal development required to move the organization to a new level (change of structure, the development of a new target, the accumulation of information about the structure).
We considered that such self-organization, its definition, the specifics and types.As you can see, this generic term today designated phenomena in living and non-living systems.That is the self-organization of matter and society are very similar.This process is very interesting as a universal property of systems.