Russian history has many terms and events, the characteristics of which causes difficulties for students.One of these concepts is the Transfiguration of the order is carried out in XVII - XVIII centuries the role of the detective, and the governing body.
complexity of the issue lies in the fact that the term "order" in the last century has changed its meaning.For this reason, many students are lost, having been instructed: "Open the meaning of concepts.Transfiguration order - what is it? "In this situation, a gross mistake is to attempt to answer the question, based on a modern language.
term "order" - a requirement or authority?
To learn the meaning of "Preobrazhensky" and to clarify the role he played in the formation of the Russian empire, it is necessary to understand the origin of the term "order".Modern Dictionary explains the word as follows: 'disposal, subject to strict execution. "However, this formulation was coined relatively recently.In Russia, since the end of the XV century, it was called by the order of the central authorities responsible for a certain part of the public concerns.So Prince Ivan III, completed the unification of disparate Slavic principalities, transformed the management system of Russia, handing over executive powers to the orders - the prototype of modern ministries.Ambassadorial Department, Local, Yamskaya, Pushkarsky ... With each new prince or king system complements, but until Peter I never cease to exist.
appearance of Preobrazhensky
This authority is obliged by the appearance of two small villages near Moscow - Semenovsk and Transfiguration, which in 1682 was exiled young Tsar Peter with his mother.All power was concentrated in the hands of the regent - Sophia, and amusements for Peter were allocated two "amusing" regiment.Manage all the economic and other issues of these regiments were transferred to a specially created for this purpose Preobrazhensky.
But over time, as the young Peter began to participate in the governance of the country, this "ludicrous" the order changes its value.Around him rallied the young followers of Peter, it developed the first major reform plans, discussed the need for a military campaign against Turkey.To supervise the order of Peter A. put one of his closest friends - Prince Fedor Yurevich Romodanovsky.
first serious case Preobrazhensky
In 1689, Princess Sophia attempted to seize full power and to become queen.It was supported by a Royal regiments stationed in Moscow.Amusing shelves, led by prince Romodanovsky have been forced into their first serious battle and won.Sophia was exiled to the Novodevichy Monastery and Transfiguration order from a small business organization has become one of the most important public authorities.It was administered policing in Moscow investigating political crimes in 1698 he was granted the exclusive right to judge any crimes against the king or the royal authority.
It is this powerful organization reign of Peter I obliged several riot, persecution of political opponents of Peter and bloody executions.The concept of "Preobrazhensky" became a household name for years in associating people with terrible torturous torture chambers and brutal reprisals.
However, in reality the function of this order were much wider: up to the creation of the Senate in 1711, he was the chief governing body of the country in the absence of the king.For example, while the participation of Peter I the Great Embassy to Europe is Preobrazhensky address all internal problems.
Preobrazhensky role in suppressing the uprising musketeers
One of the most serious cases, which could participate subordinate prince Romodanovsky, was Streltsy uprising in 1698.Sent (instead of the promised relaxation) to serve in the Great Luke regiments refused to obey orders.And moved to liberate Princess Sophia - which, unlike Peter, "was gracious to them."Strelets uprising was brutally suppressed.At the behest of Peter more than 300 archers were arrested and interrogated in SVEZA Transfiguration order.The significance of this event for the development of Russia was enormous: it was after the rebellion in 1698 strelets army was dissolved and ceased to exist forever.
Across the country, was sympathetic detective musketeers.Many of the participants in the uprising perished in the dungeons Preobrazhensky, even more were executed in public on the Red Square as a warning to others.This tragic event captured Vasily Surikov in his painting "Morning of the Strelets' Execution."
epoch of empire
In subsequent years, the Transfiguration of the order became more and more central detective and judicial authority.From 1702 it began to interrogate everyone who "was telling for a sovereign word" (ie, had information about the imminent plot or seditious conversations).
In 1718, in St. Petersburg was established secret office, obtain a function of the Transfiguration of the order in the north, and a few years these two organizations merged into one.It was here, in the Peter and Paul Fortress, where the secret office, conducted the case of Tsarevich Alexei - the son of Peter I, was accused of treason.Interrogation methods involving torture were not changed even for Alexei Petrovich, and was soon convicted.However, the heir to the throne before his execution did not live: June 26, he was found dead in his cell.
last years Preobrazhensky
All Petrine era Transfiguration order was the mainstay of royal power.Extends its powers to change the name: so, in 1702, the organization became known as temporarily "by the court."By the end of the reign of Peter I the order had the authority to seek and to judge political prisoners and to investigate criminal cases, to carry out executions, and even control the sale of tobacco.Fedor Romodanovsky replaced by his son, Ivan Romodanovsky, supervise criminal detective work has been put Andrey Ushakov.
loses its meaning was the brainchild of Peter only after his death.Catherine I renamed the Office of the Transfiguration in the organization, while retaining most of its powers.And in 1729, Emperor Peter II finally abolished the authority, dismissing its chief and transferred all cases to the Senate and the Supreme Council.