Supreme Privy Council was set up after the death of Peter the Great.Accession to the throne of Catherine necessitated its organization in order to clarify the situation: the Empress was not able to direct the activities of the Russian government.
establishment of the Supreme Privy Council, was thought, was to "soothe hurt feelings" of the old nobility of the management eliminated nerodovitymi figures.This should not change the form, namely the nature and essence of the supreme power, after all, retaining their titles, it has turned into a public institution.
Many historians have expressed the view that the main flaw of the system created by Peter the great power of nature was the impossibility of a combination of executive power with the collective principle, therefore, it was established Supreme Privy Council.
turned out that the emergence of this higher advisory body was not so much the result of opposition to political interests, as necessary, related to the gaps in the system of Peter inadequate level of senior management.Results short of the Council were not very significant, because it had to act immediately after intense and active era, when one reform replaced another, but in all spheres of public life was felt strongly excited.
reason for creating
Create Supreme Privy Council was called upon to sort out the complex tasks of Peter's reforms, remains unresolved.His work clearly showed that it had inherited from Catherine withstood the test of time, and that has to be reorganized.The sequence of the entire Supreme Council followed the line of selected Peter to policies concerning industry, although in general the general trend of its activity can be described as the reconciliation of people's interests with the interests of the army, the rejection of the extensive military campaigns and the failure of any reforms against Russian troops.Simultaneously, the agency responds to the needs of their activities and cases that required immediate solutions.
members of the Supreme Privy Council
date of establishment of this senior advisory state institution began in February 1726.Its members were appointed by His Serene Highness Prince General Field Marshal Menshikov, Golovkin goskantsler General Apraksin, Count Tolstoy, Baron Osterman and Prince Golitsyn.A month later, its membership was included and the Duke of Holstein - in-law Catherine, the most trusted person of the Empress.From the outset, the members of the supreme governing body were exclusively followers of Peter, but soon Menshikov, who under Peter the Second was in exile, replaced Tolstoy.After some time, Apraksin died and the Duke of Holstein and had stopped attending the meeting.From initially appointed members of the Supreme Privy Council in its ranks there are only three members - Osterman, Golitsyn and Golovkin.The composition of this advisory body has changed a lot higher.Gradually the power passed into the hands of the powerful princely families - Golitsyn and Dolgoruky.
the Privy Council on the orders of Empress subdued and the Senate, which initially lowered to the point that he decided to send the decrees of the first equal with him Synod.When Menshikov tried to consolidate the newly established authority and power of a government.Ministers called him as a member, along with the senators swore Empress.It is strictly prohibited to execute orders not signed by the empress and her offspring, which is the Supreme Privy Council.
According to Catherine the First Testament, it was to this body on the minority of Peter II was given power, which is equivalent to the power of the sovereign.However, the Privy Council had no right to make changes only in the order of succession to the throne.
Changing the form of government
Since the first inception of the organization, many abroad have predicted the possibility of trying to change the form of government in Russia.And they were right.When he died, Peter II, as it happened on the night of January 19, 1730, despite the will of Catherine, her descendants were barred from the throne.The pretext was a young and frivolous Elizabeth, a younger successor of Peter, and the infancy of their grandson - the son of Anna Petrovna.The question of the election of the Russian monarch was settled influential voice of Prince Golitsyn, who said that one should pay attention to the older line of Peter's family, and therefore proposed the candidacy of Anna Ivanovna.Daughter of John A., nineteen years living in Kurland, arranged all because Russia had no favorites.She seemed manageable and docile, with no inclination to despotism.In addition, this decision was due to the non-perception Golitsyn Peter's reforms.This narrow individual tendencies and joined longstanding idea "the supreme" to change the form of government, which, of course, it was easier to do during the reign of Anna childless.
advantage of the situation, "Supreme Privy Council" decided to limit the number of autocratic power, demanded that Anna to sign certain conditions, so-called "air conditioner."According to them the real power had to have it, the Supreme Privy Council, and the role of the emperor was reduced to only representative functions.Such a form of government in Russia was new.
At the end of January 1730 signed a new-found the Empress presented her "condition."Henceforth it without the approval of the Supreme Council could not tie a war, conclude peace treaties, introducing new taxes or tax-free.Not in its competence was spending the treasury on their own to work in the ranks above the rank of colonel, salaries fiefdoms, depriving the nobility of life or property without a trial, and most importantly - the appointment of the successor to the throne.
struggle for the revision "Conditions»
Anna Ivanovna, having driven to the Ancient, went to the Cathedral of the Assumption, where senior government officials and army swore Empress.The new form of the oath had been deprived of some of the old expression meaning autocracy, it was not mentioned and the rights that are vested in the Supreme Privy authority.Meanwhile, the sharp struggle between the two parties - "the supreme" and supporters of the autocracy.In the ranks of the latter played an active role Yaguzhinskii P., A. Kantemir, Feofan Prokopovich and A. Osterman.They were supported by broad sections of the nobility, who were willing to review "Conditions."Discontent was primarily due to the gain of a narrow circle of members of the Privy Council.In addition, the condition of the majority of the representatives of the nobility, in those days was called the nobility saw the intention to establish an oligarchy in Russia and a desire to assign two names - Dolgoruky and Golitsyn - the right to elect the monarch and change form of government.
In February 1730 a large group of representatives of the nobility, was, according to some reports, up to eight people, was the palace to submit a petition to Anna Ivanovna.Among them were many Guards officers.The petition urged the Empress expressed together with the nobility once again review the form of government, to make it pleasing to the entire Russian people.Anna, by their nature somewhat varied, but her older sister - Catherine Ivanovna - made her still sign the petition.It asked the nobles to take the complete sovereignty and destroy items "Conditions."
Anna on new terms secured approval bewildered "the supreme": so had no choice but just nods their heads.According to contemporaries, they had no other choice, because at the slightest opposition or disapproval, the guards rushed to them.Anna gladly publicly severed not only "condition", but also its own letter of acceptance of their points.
inglorious end of the Council
First March 1730 on the terms of the full sovereignty of the people once again took an oath to the Empress.And after only three days of the Manifesto was held on March 4, the abolition of the Supreme Privy Council.
fate of his former members have developed differently.Prince Golitsyn was dismissed, and some time later he died.His brother, as well as three of the four Dolgorukov, was executed during the reign of Anne.Repression spared just one of them - Vasily Vladimirovich, that when Elizabeth was acquitted, returned from exile and, moreover, has been appointed head of the Military Collegium.
Osterman during the reign of Empress Anna Ivanovna was important government posts.Moreover, in the years 1740-1741 he briefly became the de facto ruler of the country, but as a result of another palace coup was defeated and exiled to Berezov.