The hyoid bone.

As part of the skeleton of an adult about 206 bones.Each of them has its own structure, location and function.Some bones help to move, protect our other organs and tissues from damage, well, while others make it possible to perform actions such as chewing, swallowing and, of course, speaking.Such functions are performed by the hyoid bone and the muscles that are attached to it.Despite its very small size, this bone is very important.Injuries associated with its broken, are extremely dangerous, they often are fatal.

anatomical structure

hyoid bone is located directly under the body language.She can feel only thin people.Its size is relatively small, but it participates in the implementation of very important functions.At the same muscles that are connected with it, it helps to carry out such processes as chewing and swallowing.Besides, without it would not be possible in human speech.So to overestimate the importance of this bone is not possible.The structure of the hyoid bone snap.It is conventionally divided into the body, large and small horns.With the rest of the bones, it is connected by joints and ligaments.The body of the hyoid bone is shaped like an uneven record, almost convex front.It has a vertical and transverse ridges.Heterogeneity and edges: an upper tapered and the bottom, on the contrary, slightly thickened.On both sides the body is connected by means of joint cartilage surfaces with large horns.They depart in the direction of backward.Big horns much longer and thinner body.At the ends they can detect thickening.From the place where the big horn is connected to the body, small horns depart.They usually consist of bone tissue, but in some cases remain cartilage.They are also connected with the body via a joint.The ends of the small horns enclosed in shilopodyazychnuyu bunch.Sometimes it contains one, at least some pretty little bones.

fracture of the hyoid bone and symptoms of damage to the throat

fractures and damage to the hyoid bone are relatively rare.Typically, this occurs as a result of blunt trauma to the submandibular region.Thus on this site should be rather strong mechanical action.In some cases, a fracture can cause suffocation.This happens when hanging.Fresh small fracture makes itself felt quite obvious symptoms.This is primarily a strong pain in the upper front of the neck when swallowing or chewing.Also in the area of ​​the hyoid bone is visible a small hematoma.On palpation there is mobility and crepitus debris.

In severe trauma the hyoid bone are broken mucosa.This is followed by a fairly heavy bleeding from the mouth.It is caused by damage to the branches of the lingual artery or the thyroid.Often, such an injury is fatal.First aid for fractures of this nature is very difficult and not always effective.

can say that all the injuries that involve hyoid bone (photo of its location you can see in the article) is very dangerous to health and even life.

First Aid First Aid fracture of the hyoid bone should be carried out quickly.When excessive bleeding from the mouth need to intensify the process of blood clotting.This can be done by applying a cold or tamponade.If possible, you should try to tie up the external carotid artery.After the first hours of the injury are the most dangerous.Giving any predictions is very difficult because of the risk of suffocation.When you break the throat can be too much blood loss.Unfortunately, often death occurs even before arriving caused by an ambulance.

Indeed, the right person to help when broken hyoid bone is broken and slimy, very difficult.If you have all the signs of asphyxia, the best thing you can do is to conduct intubation and then tamponade throats to reduce blood loss.Following these complex manipulations needed as soon as possible to deliver the injured to hospital.

Treatment Treatment of injuries associated with a fracture of the hyoid bone is immobilization and complete elimination of all displacements of fragments.This can be achieved by palpation of the both side of the mouth, and, of course, outside.The immobilization of the head and, very importantly, the neck is carried out by means of reliably fixing corset.In severe cases, when the hyoid bone is severely damaged, on the shoulders and neck superimposed gypsum.But in practice often hold bone fragments in the correct position is reached only when the surgical reduction.Often these injuries entail a number of complications, so the treatment should be as efficient as possible.

hyoid muscles

all the muscles that are attached at one end to the hyoid bone, are divided into two groups: suprahyoid and subhyoid.They differ from the other provisions and, accordingly, functions.By suprahyoid muscles include:

- digastric;

- jaw-hyoid;

- shilopodyazychnaya;

- geniohyoid muscle.

They are all over the hyoid bone and attached directly to it.Digastric consists of front and rear of the abdomen, which are connected to each other tendons.It is closely linked with another group of fibers.Rear abdomen in its upper part is attached to the temporal bone.Going down, the latter is adjacent to stylohyoid and goes into an intermediate tendon.It covers the fixation loop body and the great horn of the hyoid bone.But before that it permeates stylohyoid, which has the shape of a spindle.From the lower jaw with the inner surface coming off, another group of fibers.Mylohyoid muscle is flat and wide.Bunches of its fibers are arranged transversely, they are designed to meet and grow together, forming a tendon suture.The side of the median line of jaw-hyoid begins geniohyoid muscle.

functions suprahyoid muscle

suprahyoid muscle group performs a general function.They allow the hyoid bone to move up, down and sideways.It helps a person to perform such complex tasks as swallowing and chewing.Thus, we can say that suprahyoid muscles involved in respiratory and digestive functions, albeit indirectly.Also, this band of muscle fibers, raising the hyoid bone together with the larynx and dropping the lower jaw, contributes to the process of speech production.

subhyoid muscle

By subhyoid muscles include: sternohyoid, scapular-hyoid, sternothyroid muscle.They also are attached to the hyoid bone, but located below it.For omohyoid muscle begins at the top of the blade.It has two large belly, which are separated by an intermediate tendon.Sternohyoid muscle lower end thereof is attached to the handle of the sternum.It is the same as the scapula, sublingual fiber, its upper part is attached to the hyoid bone.The third group of muscles - sterno-thyroid - is ahead of the thyroid gland and trachea.

functions subhyoid muscle

subhyoid muscles acting group, the hyoid bone is pulled together with the larynx down.However, each of them thus performs one specific function.For example, sternothyroid muscle selectively moves the thyroid cartilage down.But not least, another feature subhyoid muscles.Reducing, they firmly reinforce the position of the hyoid bone, which is attached to the suprahyoid muscle group at this time lowers the lower jaw.