Unable to establish the age of the first sewer systems on the ground.The most ancient sewers of ancient Rome - Cloaca Maxima, the first mention of which relate either to the IIV, whether to the IV century BC Etruscan assign researchers to masters, to an even earlier civilization.That is a person not an animal, and, along with the construction of houses immediately began to build latrines.
Cloaca as part of the sewer system
In this first ancient structures are not surprising their Latin names.Cloaca - what is it?If you translate the verb "cloacare" into Russian, it turns out - dirty, dirty.Hence the cloaca - the channel to something dirty with filth, or their place of accumulation, or structure to get rid of them.There are old European cities, where the stone pits are located right along the street, but, as a rule, sewer outlets were underground, and sometimes a whole city.Nedra Paris, described in many novels, even shrouded predatory romance.There administer justice (though a very peculiar), they found shelter persecuted.So cesspool - what is it?In modern Rome - a very popular tourist destination.
Cloaca as a metaphor
special role belongs to the word in the literature.Since the dawn of the century called the cloaca all untidiness, dirty, unworthy, disgusting as a purely physical sense (running a latrine), and in the spiritual sense - unworthy thoughts and desires.All of which in the literal and figurative sense, more than a bad smell, it prints in addition that name.And this must be placed near the fence.
term in biology
But it is not only the engineering and literary terms.It is found in ornithology - the science that studies birds.Cloaca in birds, as well as some fish and cyclostomes (lower vertebrates), all reptiles and amphibians (echidnas, platypus, and so on. D.) - Is a kind of cavity is an extension of the end of the digestive tract.In birds, it is the way mochetochny channel and the oviduct.Therefore, the surface of eggs of birds offered for sale should be processed.To overestimate the importance of this organ in birds is difficult, since the insemination (and of course, multiplication) is carried out at the birds through a process known as "cloacal kiss."
In medicine, this term is also present.Cloaca human exists at the embryo, then in the process of development, it is transformed into two parts separated from each other - and genitourinary proctal.As the first (urogenital) and second (rectal) parts have independent access to the surface of the human body.So they divided between themselves the perineum.That is to say, the physiological reality.But in medicine, the term still occurs in the name of the disease resulting from a rare defect of fetal development.With regard to this case, the cloaca - what is it?This is a rare and complex malformation of the rectum area.It is called "congenital cloaca" and is found only in girls.The essence of the disease is that the urethra, vagina and rectum are combined into one common channel, the anus while totally absent.It detects it immediately after birth.Treatment of the disease is only by means of very complicated surgery.
term place in the modern world
Recently, the word "cloaca" has become very common.It happened because of the scope of specialization it has reached a worldwide expanse of computer games and modern prose ("Cloaca" Edgar Doctorow).And if it does not occur in the name of the game, it takes a considerable part.An example is a cesspool of Dalar incredibly popular game «World of Warcraft».Cloaca - it's in WOW?It is a city with its own heroes and quests.Political arena, too, contributed to the promotion of the term.