There are many species of fungi, but we'll talk about mushrooms (Agaricus).Today, it is not necessary to collect them in the forest, because in every supermarket sells beautiful little white mushrooms - a kind of mushroom.The French learned how to grow them in the XVII century.Currently, among the edible fungus production volume this type of ranking first in the world.
Mushrooms in nature
Despite their affordability, many seek out the nature of the mushrooms, because "mushroom hunting" - a very useful, fun and exciting activity.It allows you to completely distract from domestic problems, to spend some time alone with nature.How interesting to find among the grass or leaves a nice tasty fungus, and if lucky, and a whole little family!Mushrooms are ubiquitous, brought forth in the forests, parks, meadows, and even on the pavement.
They are pileate agaric.In nature, there are at least 60 species of them, united by common characteristics, but each kind of mushroom mushroom has its own characteristics.Plate called these mushrooms, which at the bottom side of the cap plates available.Young mushroom plate white, then pink, the old become black and brown and black and brown.
distinguishes this kind of as the presence of a ring on the stem.Caps and stems - is the fruiting body and the mycelium is in the earth.In the lower layer of the cap mushroom spores are arranged with which they multiply, forming a new mycelium.Multiplies and can spawn pieces by creating an enabling environment.
Small mushrooms may be familiar to us not only the spherical shape of the cap, and bell-shaped, almost cylindrical.As the edge of her moving away, and the stem is formed one or two rings.The cap continues to unfold, become more visible plate in the lower part.In the open as it has semi- or fully sprawled form.
consider several species, the most common in the way of mushroom: forest, meadow, field, bisporus.
Forest (Agaricus silvaticus), sometimes called "blagushka."This kind of mushroom can be found in coniferous forests from mid-summer to October, especially on ant mounds.Despite the taste, it is rarely collected.Many are discouraged that at the turn of the pulp becomes brownish-red color.
Young mushrooms foot tall, with a white ring, which in old specimens may fall.Cap ovoid, then becomes convex, resembles the shape of a bell, and later - a plane-prostrate.She has brown fibrous scales.
Lugovoi (ordinary, Pecheritsa), the Latin name - Agaricus campestris.This kind of mushroom is known even to urban residents, as found near the houses - in gardens, parks.It prefers well-fertilized land, can grow in the pastures, in places walking cattle.Mushroom tasty and very fruitful, growing in large groups.
white hat, first it has a spherical shape, then convex, then flat.Plates pink, mature mushrooms gray-brown.The flesh is white and firm, on the cut turns pink.As the "skirt" connecting edges of the cap with the stalk is separated and remains a membranous ring in the upper part of the legs.
Field (Agaricus arvensis).This species - the closest relative of the beet, but many believe that its taste is much better.He has a special, very pleasant smell and is one of the largest among the mushrooms.In some instances the weight is up to 300 g, and the cap diameter is 20 cm.
Young mushrooms have egg hat, which gradually becomes a plano-convex shape, with silky skin, when you touch the color changes to yellow.On the leg has two-layer ring at the bottom of the layers stand out characteristic yellow tabs.The plates, with the aging of the fungus, change color from pink to dark brown.
bisporus (Agaricus bisporus) - this is all familiar kind of mushroom, widely cultivated in artificial conditions.
Mushroom pickers often inexperienced collect conditionally toxic (false) a kind of mushroom, and cast into the basket to the other fungi.Although their use in food and is not fatal, but can cause a lot of troubles.Even after heat treatment are stored in poisonous substances causing poisoning accompanied intestinal disorders, vomiting, colics.
most often confused with edible mushrooms two varieties of mushrooms, photos you see.Yellows mushroom (Agaricus xanthodermus) occurs both in open field and in the grass.This type of hat inedible white, often with a grayish-brown spots.
Flesh, in accordance with the title, with yellow cut immediately.The lower part of the legs is also yellow, sometimes orange.This kind of bell-hats are often confused with the field.In addition to the color of the pulp can be distinguished by a very bad smell, which is enhanced by roasting.
Ploskoshlyapkovy, mottled, scaly mushroom (Agaricus Placomyces) - yet another inedible fungus, which is found in mixed and coniferous forests.His hat gray-brown color, with a dark spot in the center, covered with scales.Unpleasant smell of carbolic acid produces inedible this species.
ploskoshlyapkovy sometimes confused with mushroom forest, but as we already know, the forest species have a pleasant smell and cut the flesh into slow blush, while variegated yellow and gradually turns brown.
Very often, inexperienced mushroom pickers can not distinguish young mushrooms of similar to them, but fatally poisonous mushroom white and pale toadstool.They are similar and hats, and plates, and rings on the legs.
It must be remembered that the difference can be clearly seen only in adult specimens: from the mushroom and pale toadstool, unlike edible mushrooms, color plates still bright.Find an adult mushroom and inspect the lower part of the cap.Another easy way to check: when pressed flesh color poisonous mushroom does not change.
Image 1 - mushroom forest;
Photo 2 - champignon meadow;
Photo 3 - Agaricus arvensis;
Photo 4 - yellows mushroom;
Photo 5 - ploskoshlyapkovy mushroom.