Familiar words, nouns and adjectives, names of rivers and towns are often the object of study etymology.Scientists want to get to the essence of the origin of a particular concept.Well, for example.Why is the city called the city?To answer this question, let's look at how it is transformed and what happens to the words of the letter.
A and B were sitting on the tube, or why the city was named the city
The simplest explanation is that the word "garden" (fence) with time lost letter "o."Continuing etymological "digs" and following the people's logic, one can draw parallels and to remember that "Outskirts" (entrance to the village) - came from the colloquial contraction of the phrase "about face".If hail - is a kind of settlement for the elite with a strong wall, such as a palace or a castle, then the fence (or garden) means "around the city", that is, near the fenced area outside.That's why the city was named the city.
most often the population of such objects were craftsmen and merchants.When the number of residents increased okologorodnih, they built to protect the new fence - a wall.So the city and grew around the central, closed walls of the complex of buildings.
Lived whether the ancient Chinese in Moscow?
And Moscow is building rings, as evidenced by preserved notation: Garden Ring, the Boulevard Ring, and others. In the 15th century, Ivan III expelled the fence Kremlin family handicraft, townspeople and merchant people.The construction of another wall was completed by Italian builders in 1538.The district received an interesting name - China Town, and the wall itself was called Kitai-Gorod.Today, this area belongs to the Tverskoy district and is the administrative, cultural and business center of Moscow.Why is called China Town?The place name originated from a mixture of Russian-Italian word and means "the city wall."According to one version, the word "China" is of Turkic origin and literally translates as a fortress, fortified place.But according to another hypothesis, it happened on the eastern Slavic word "whale", "whale", which means "like the fence", that is built on the principle of the fence.Such a strong wall braided installed at some distance from each other and the space between them is filled with earth, large stones, gravel and clay.The result is a very strong wall, the breakdown of which sometimes could not even cannonballs.Thus, the Chinese was not in Moscow.
Still interesting science - etymology!The studies are clear different names.In particular, you can understand why the city was named the city.But back to our names.
Once in 1922 Moscow became the capital of the Soviet Union, began a major restructuring and redesign of the urban space.China white stone walls of the city was completely demolished in 1934.Some remains of this building are preserved on the square.Revolution in Theatre Travel yes in the subway station "China Town" in the direction "Varvarka."
On the banks of the river marsh
«There will be a city built, we call it Moscow, after the river!" - Said Yuri Dolgoruky.Approximately historical records describe the great urban planning.In fact, a small village on the banks of the river existed long before this momentous event in 1147.Why is called the city of Moscow, it is clear - it is the name of the river, on which is built.And what exactly does that word mean?There are many hypotheses, clarifying the origin of the name.Etymology and other investigators still continue to deal with the history of its formation and values.So what does this word mean?And why the city was named the city, rather than, say, the outskirts?
Regarding the second syllable are no differences.It is believed that the language of the peoples of Komi borrowed particle "-wa", meaning "wet" or "water".A first syllable is interpreted differently.We consider several versions:
- «Mosquito" - "dark" or "black" in the Baltic languages;
- the peoples of Komi is translated as "cow";
- at Mari is "Mesca" (bear);
- translation from Czech - "raw bread";
- Slovaks word means "pool";
- the people Erzya "mazy" - beautiful, "Kuva" - place.
- in the Slavonic language "Mosquito" - a "marsh".
Following simple logic, it turns out that Moscow - a river with a muddy, marshy shores, or simply "swampy water."This version is confirmed by the fact that the river takes its beginning from Starkovskogo swamp.
First there was a fortress
another Russian city, the history of the name is often excites consciousness inquiring minds - Petersburg.In the valley of the River Neva, reclaimed from Sweden and attached to the Russian Empire, Peter I ordered to build a fortress city.Since its construction (1703), and by 1720 the first fortress was called St. Peter-Burj.Later the name changed several times, that did not detract from the value of the object.What good has brought the creation of the new city on the banks of the Neva?
- Russia gained access to new sea routes.
- actively began to develop shipbuilding.
- Future Peter and Paul Fortress has become a reliable barrier to invaders.
Later this fort grew a beautiful city, which is now called the northern capital of Russia.
St. Peter-Burj, also known as St. Petersburg, he also Petrograd, Leningrad and Petersburg
from 1720 to 1914, and the capital of the Russian Empire was called St. Petersburg."Saint" - holy, "Peter" - Peter, "Burj" - the city, we find "the city of St. Peter."I think, no comment, because everything is clear.The capital was given the name of its founder.That is why the town was called St. Petersburg.