State employment policy aimed at resolving such important tasks as development and the full realization of the labor potential of citizens.It also can be included to provide the population worthy earnings, steady progress up the career ladder.
active employment policy - is action aimed at reducing unemployment.These include measures that prevent dismissal of employees, as well as training, education and assistance in finding jobs, training, creation of new working meth.
passive state employment policy - a measure to help reduce the negative effects of the phenomenon of unemployment.This could include the payment of social benefits, the issuance of the poor people of essential goods, the organization of special dining rooms for the homeless, as well as other forms of assistance.
State employment policy is still divided into three categories.
- Economic measures.In particular, the promotion of entrepreneurial activity by providing tax incentives, subsidies, loan.
- Institutional arrangements.In particular, it is professional development, job search assistance, training.
- Legal measures.This legislation providing early retirement, reduction of the retirement age, the establishment of working hours, holidays.In addition, this legislation provides for a minimum wage, compensatory time off, double payment for access to the service during the holidays, the security situation in the industries listed as harmful.
State employment policy is divided into three models, popular in developed countries.The American model involves the creation of a large number of jobs that do not require high performance.This formal unemployment is reduced, but increased the number of citizens with the minimum wage.
Scandinavian state employment policy involves the creation of jobs in the public sphere.At the same time citizens have an average salary and stability.However, this system has its disadvantages.In particular, there is a risk of inflation and the depletion of financial resources.
European model implies ensuring revenue growth and increased productivity.Such a system requires a lot of benefits for the unemployed.
There are different types of employment.Full-time means the activities throughout the day in which the employee receives a salary, adequate for the region.
Underemployment can be forced in connection with all sorts of economic reasons.It involves work in part-time, which means a reduced efficiency and low wages.
voluntary part-time work is most often associated with various social causes.For instance, a person caring for sick relatives, or to combine study with work.
summarize.The state policy in the field of employment should be carried out comprehensively.It is necessary to provide assistance to people who can not get a job for any reason.For example, it may be to promote training and retraining.However, it should be remembered that in any case, a certain percentage of unemployment will remain.There will need special measures.In particular, the various benefits and assistance to the poor.There are various mechanisms to reduce unemployment.Each of them has its pros and cons.In any case, you need to encourage people to work, because of how many people are involved in the economy, it depends on the welfare state.