One of the most dangerous types of natural disasters that people can neither prevent nor stop or control, is a volcanic eruption.It occurs due to the constant changes in the crust, and also due to movement of its plates.The most dangerous volcanoes in the world map can be found in various parts of it.These include such as Merapi, Santorini, Popocatepetl, Mauna Loa, Rainier, Nyiragongo, Colima, Sakurajima, Koryak, Papadayan, Taal, Ulawun, Santa Maria and many others.About them in detail and will be discussed further.
Merapi on the island of Java (Indonesia) is the active volcano Mount Merapi, whose name is translated from the local language means "mountain of fire".Its height is 2914 meters.Nearby is the ancient city of Yogyakarta.The activity of this volcano belonging to the Pacific Rim of Fire, began about four thousand years ago.According to statistics, about one in every seven years here there are large eruptions, and every six months - small.At the same time almost all the time, he smokes.It is impossible not to mention the fact that for the past seventeen centuries, almost exactly Merapi headed the list of "most dangerous volcanoes of the world."
crater here looks like a huge pit that was dug in the result of many explosions strongest power.It consists of massive hardwood that in most cases advantageous are andesites.On the slopes there are a huge number of small cracks, holes, which are well can be seen in the dark thanks to the flames purple-red color.
last serious eruption of the volcano was started in May 2006.For almost a year out of the crater was thrown several million cubic meters of lava that went down to the local village.As a result of this process, it killed more than one thousand people.One of the worst natural disasters in the history of the volcano dates back to 1906..Then, due to this cleft in the mountain slid into the valley of the cone.After this huge explosion of power that led to the death of an entire civilization - the state of Mataram, which has reached high levels of development at that time.
According to geological studies, the volcano of Santorini is relatively young and there was about 200 thousand years ago.For a long time it was blocked by lava which gradually accumulated in the crater.About 25 thousand years ago, the internal gas pressure exceeds the strength quite soft rock, which in turn led to a large explosion.After a caldera filled with lava that formed the island bearing the same name today.Currently, the volcano of Santorini is no different activity.His last serious eruption dates from 20 February 1886.On this day there was a loud explosion, which, according to eyewitnesses, published later, accompanied by the emission of red-hot lava from the sea, as well as steam and ash rises to a height of several hundred meters.
Popocatepetl volcano Popocatepetl
familiar to every inhabitant of the capital of Mexico, located at a distance of about fifty kilometers away.The fact that Mexico City is home to about twelve million inhabitants, each of which has an opportunity to see the volcano from both the tallest skyscrapers and small houses with courtyards located in the poorest areas of the city.The literal translation of his name from the Aztec language means "smoking mountain".At the same time over the past twelve centuries of large eruptions of it happening.Only occasionally ejected from the crater of a small number of pieces of lava, ash and gas.In the twentieth century the volcano Popocatepetl is small bursts of activity in 1923 and 1993.The main danger for the people, which was connected with them, was not so much in the red-hot lava, but in mudslides that swept away everything in its path.They were formed by the melting of glaciers on the slopes.Much to the happiness of residents of Mexico City and its suburbs, as a result of the latest eruption of the northern slopes were not affected, so no human casualties.
Mauna Loa volcano is active and is located on the territory of the Hawaiian Islands in the Pacific Ocean.Its height 4170 meters dostikaet.The main feature of this volcano is considered that it is the biggest in the world by the number of outgoing material in view of the underwater part of (its volume is about eighty thousand cubic kilometers).The most powerful eruptions are accompanied by emission of huge amounts of lava fountains.It sees not only the crater itself, but also laterally through the relatively small cracks.The height of these fountains sometimes reaches one kilometer.Under the influence of high temperatures here form numerous tornadoes that accompany fiery mantle on her way down.According to official documents, the Mauna Loa volcano last erupted in 1984.Since 1912 him being monitored continually.Their main purpose is to alert residents about the impending disaster in the form of a volcanic eruption.To that end, here specially created an entire Volcano station.In addition it then operates solar and atmospheric observatory.
Rainier Mount Rainier is located 87 kilometers from the US city of Seattle.It is part of the Cascade Mountains, where the height of 4392 meters is the highest peak.At the top are two volcanic crater with a diameter of more than three hundred meters.The mountain slopes are covered with snow with ice, which are free from the rim of the crater and the region.The reason for this is the high temperature which acts here.Not all volcanoes of the world can boast such a solid age, which has Mount Rainier.According to geological studies, the process of its formation started about 840 thousand years ago.
There is every reason to suppose that because of the snow and ice with debris avalanche earlier here there are more mudflows, causing enormous damage to all surrounding areas.Because of their appearance perished, not only people, but animals with plants.They also lies the main danger today.The fact that the accumulations of these flows near many settlements are located.Another serious problem is the presence of large amounts of ice at the top.Due to continuous hydrothermal activity it though slowly, but still weaker.According to scientists, geologists, if there is a large rural, it could move far enough to break even and some areas of Seattle.Moreover, it eliminates the possibility that a similar phenomenon will lead to a tsunami on Lake Washington.
In the northern part of the African state Republic of Congo, on the territory of the Virunga Mountains, is the peak of Nyiragongo.It refers to the list of "the most active volcanoes of the world", which is a clear confirmation of the fact that over the past 130 years, officially registered 34 eruptions of varying degrees of power.It should be noted that some of them lasted for years.The last activity of the volcano was awarded in 2008.Nyiragongo lava is, the composition of which is different from the others.The fact that it contains a lot of quartz, so it is highly fluid and liquid.This is the main danger, because the velocity of its flow along the mountain slopes can reach the mark of 100 km / h.Not surprisingly, residents of villages located near virtually no chance to react promptly to emit lava.
Volcano Nyiragongo lies on a height of 3470 meters above sea level.As for the lake with a red-hot mantle, it goes deep into the crater of the distance is about 400 meters.According to the calculations of scientists, it contains about ten million cubic meters of lava.According to this indicator is considered to be the largest lake on the planet.The level of the lava is never in a fixed place and all the time ranges.Mouth filled to the top for the last time in 2002.The result of this accident was the complete destruction of the town of Goma, which was nearby.
Colima is located in the Mexican state of Jalisco, in the western part of the country, at a distance of about eighty kilometers from the coast of the Pacific Ocean.In the state he is considered the most active.An interesting feature is the fact that it includes a volcanic complex consisting of two peaks conical shape.The first of these is almost always under snow and ice, and is an extinct volcano Nevado de Colima,.Its height is 4625 meters.The second peak rises to 3846 meters and is known as "Volcano of Fire."
Crater Colima is small, so the lava in it accumulates enough.At the same time a high degree of its activity leads to the fact that a lot of pressure is created inside, so burning hot mantle together with the gases and ash ejected far enough, and the entire process resembles present pyrotechnics.The last major eruption of the volcano happened ten years ago.Discarded ashes rose from the crater while at a height of about five kilometers, and the government decided on the temporary evacuation of a nearby settlement.
Sakurajima volcano Sakurajima
located near the Japanese city of Kagoshima, ascribed to the first category of danger.In other words, it could begin erupting at any moment.In 1955 he started the period of continuous activity of the volcano.In this regard, the Japanese living near live permanently with readiness for immediate evacuation.In order that it could be done efficiently and to have at least a little time to spare, Sakurajima over a web camera, through which continuously monitored the condition of the crater.None of the modern Japanese are not surprised conduct regular exercises on how to act in case of natural disasters, as well as the large number of shelters.Not surprisingly, Sakurajima, and is now among the leaders of the list of "most dangerous volcanoes of the world."
one of the largest eruptions of the volcano for its history happened in 1924.A strong earthquake then warned local residents of impending danger, so most of them had time to evacuate to a safe distance.After that disaster, as a result of the enormous volume of lava poured out, the so-called island of Sakura turned into a peninsula.The fact that it formed a land bridge that connected it to Kyushu, on which is located the city of Kagoshima.Over the whole year even red-hot mantle slowly poured from the crater, which has led to a significant increase in the level of the bottom.Scientists believe that it is a huge caldera was formed under the influence of similar processes that took place more than twenty thousand years ago.
One of the main attractions not only the Kamchatka peninsula, but throughout Russia, is considered to be the Koryak Volcano.He is the highest in the group (3456 meters), as well as one of the most beautiful.Gore has the shape of a classic right cone, so it can be safely called a representative stratovolcanoes.Modern, very rarely functioning, the crater lies in the western part.It has a depth which is equal to only 24 meters.The ancient crater, now filled by a glacier, located in the northern part.
The main feature of the Koryak volcano is now considered its activity is low.In historical records, there are only memories of his two eruptions.They can hardly be called strong, and they have occurred in 1895 and 1956.In the first case, the lava flowed easily from the crater, and this process did not result in an explosion, so many locals do not even notice what happened.Languages of the streams on the slopes, which were frozen, not even reaching the foot, survived.
more expressive was the second eruption of the volcano.At the time of his awakening took place, accompanied by a series of aftershocks.On the mountainside there was a crack the size of 500 x 15 meters in length and width, respectively.From it spewed gas, ash and other volcanic products.Some time later, the gap was filled with slag and small debris.At the same time there came the characteristic sounds that resembled both the sniffles, hissing, hooting and whistling.An interesting feature of this eruption was the complete absence of lava.Today on the volcano can be seen with the naked eye, the allocation of vapors and gases, which occurs almost constantly.
Currently, the Indonesian island of Java, there are about 120 volcanoes.Approximately one in four of them is valid, and therefore bears a danger to humans.Previously, it was already one of their representatives - Merapi.Also it should be noted also Papadayan volcano, which is very popular among tourists.This is explained by the presence in the vicinity of a large amount of mud springs and geysers, as well as a mountain river flowing down the slope.The fact is that it has a healing effect on the human organism.Its temperature is nearly 42 degrees.
Volcano is one of the most dangerous and biggest on the planet.Its crater is located above sea level at 1,800 meters.Near the crater of the acute form of sulfur gases are mixed with the cold mountain fog.It should be noted that most directly to the crater carried road.With regard Papandayana eruptions, the last one here was recorded more than a decade ago.
Of all the active volcanoes on our planet is the smallest Taal, which is located about fifty kilometers from Manila - the capital of the Philippines.On the same lake it forms a kind of island, an area of about 23 square kilometers.Not surprisingly, it was preceded by the appearance of volcanic activity.At an altitude of 350 meters above sea level is the crater in which the lake was formed with a diameter of two kilometers.Over the past five hundred years there were 33 eruptions ta'ala varying degrees of power.The most devastating of them in the twentieth century, happened in 1911.It led to the death of more than one thousand people.This cloud of ash ejected enormous size was visible at a distance of 400 kilometers from the volcano.The last eruption dates back to 1965.It killed more than two hundred people.
Despite the high risk of this place, on the banks of the lake there are five cities and many small villages.It should be noted also the presence of two power plants that are located and operate nearby.Employees of the local seismological institute is constantly being studied changes in the status of the volcano to prevent these eruptions.In spite of everything, Taal Volcano is considered one of the most popular tourist sites in the Philippines.According to its guests visiting tourists, the top offers a unique view of the surrounding countryside, seas and islands.You can get here by boat from any town on the shore of the lake.
Speaking of the most dangerous volcanoes on the planet, it is impossible not to recall the Ulawun consisting mainly of basalt and andesite.It is located in the territory of Papua New Guinea is one of those that erupt more often.Its height is 2334 meters.The slopes of the mountain at an altitude of one thousand meters covered a wide range of vegetation.Many years ago, he was completely under water.As a result of eruptions that occurred under the surface, almost always had a strong tsunami.Under the influence of crustal faults in 1878. Volcano Ulawun he rose and became visible above the water.
In 1700, it was first officially recorded its eruption.Then, near Papua New Guinea, the ship sailed on board was William Dampier - known traveler from the UK.He later described in his memoirs this unforgettable process.