now hardly anyone had heard someone being called a satrap, experience awe.Most likely, people will think of the evil actions of this man, and condemn it.But there were times when the satrap be sought, honoring this great honor.Who was the satrap?What does this word mean now and what before?
origin of the word "satrap" has several interpretations.In ancient Greek, a little different from the modern, «σατράπης» - this is a rich man, the governor of the Persian ruler.Curiously, in Greece, and now some parents give their sons the name Satrapis.So too is the word in the Iranian language.There it sounds like khshatrapâ.The ancient Persians xšaθrapāvan (kshathrapavan) is composed of two words - «kshathra», meaning the kingdom, and «pavan», t. E. Defender.It turns out, the satrap in Old - a defender of the kingdom.There is another explanation for the unusual, what does the word "satrap".The Sanskrit root "sat" - this being, the body of the universe, the existence, and in a broader sense - the truth, the light, that from which life develops."Ra" - promoting.In this case, Sat-Ra-P will be interpreted as "the true light of trampling."
Answering a question about who is a satrap, you need to think back to ancient Persia.This once very powerful state is now called Iran.On the 558 th to 330 th BC, the country was ruled by the Achaemenids.They are notable for their militancy, often attacked neighboring states and managed to win most of them.Media, Lydia, Bactria, Nubia, Colchis, Thrace, and many others became part of the Persian Empire.Of course, to manage such a vast territory one person, even the most powerful, it was difficult.Therefore, Darius I, who reigned at the time, introduced a new management system.Throughout the country it is divided into regions - satrapies, each of which was required to unquestioningly pay him tribute.Presiding over the collection of tribute and to keep order in the territory entrusted to them princes.It is clear that they were very respected people, the first after the king.
Rights and obligations satraps
Become a satrap in those days was considered a great grace and a great success.He is appointed to the post in person, Darius I, by selecting candidates from among their relatives or family members of the court aristocracy.Selected thanked the gods for this, as he now in his satrapy obey literally everything from the last slave to the highest official.Satrap oversaw the collection of taxes, to monitor the content of the army, supreme judge spoke, that is, had the right to punish and pardon.He could even mint coins.If we consider that in the internal or external affairs of satrapies king did not interfere, even allowing them to fight each other, you can see the satrap who is, and who he was to his subordinates.The only thing that limited his power - the royal garrisons, subject only to the king.This was done to princes do not try to ensure the full independence of its satrapies.In practice, management garrisons denunciations king to the satraps, and those, in turn, the leadership of the garrison.So the king and control the activities of some and others.
satrapies under the weight of unbearable extortion
taxation imposed by Darius I, a heavy burden fell on the shoulders of the conquered peoples.Fertile land taken from them and handed the Persian nobility, which did not pay any taxes.Everyone else had to regularly give the king a strictly fixed amount calculated according to the fertility and the size of their land.Taxes levied even churches.Later, we began to collect tribute in silver.His number is also strictly recorded.Those satrapy on whose territory there were no silver mines, had to buy the precious metal.In such cases administered the conquered states often rebelled.The most significant uprising occurred in 373 BC when the king went up against several regions.They were supported by the Egyptians and Greeks.Artaxerxes II, who ruled the then Persia, was able to quell the rebellion only in 359 year.This historical fact perfectly explains who the satrap, and some people had great power in this position.
most famous Persian satrap
Now there are units know who the satrap Harpagos.But this is the first governor of the king, of which there is documentary evidence.This man wrote Herodotus, his name is mentioned in the myths, and his story became a series of science fiction stories of Paul Anders "Timecop".Harpagos in the service of the king Astyages, was ordered to kill the newborn son of Mandana, daughter of the king of the Medes.Oracle predicted that this child would be the ruler of the world, and Astyages tried to argue with fate.Harpagos, not wanting to personally commit infanticide, handed the baby shepherd named Mithridates.He brought it home.The wife of Mithridates just gave birth to a dead baby, and that planted in place of the king and the prince took them.Dead baby Mithridates took Harpagos, and he reported to the king on the implementation of the order.Thus, the child, who later became Cyrus the Great, was still alive.Later, Astyages learned about fraud and the punishment for disobedience fed meat Harpagos his own son.Harpagos cruel revenge by leading a rebellion against the king and remove him from the throne.
Other famous princes
Another satrap, who left a significant mark in history - Orontes I. On it wrote Plutarch, Demosthenes, Diodorus and others.Orontes I, was satrap of Armenia.He has repeatedly raised the people to revolt against the king, sought the independence of Armenia, fought with the king of Cyprus.His name was of the river, now known as the Typhon.In addition, the Orontes I is native grandfather Orontes II, from which is born Orontidov in Armenia.
There was satrap ointments ruled Cilicia, Syria, and the lands of Israel and Lebanon.Later he joined the satrapy of Macedonia.When the Persians conquered by Alexander the Great, ointments was satrap of Babylon.He gave the Romans the city without a fight, for which he not only stayed there on previous positions, but received permission from Alexander the Great to print its own coins, which were deprived of other princes.Meaning of the word now sometimes interpreted as rulers of states who are dependent from a stronger power.
satraps Tsarist Russia
satraps in ancient times was called the guardians of the state.Gradually the word has become synonymous.Most likely, by analogy with the ancient Persian royal governors, rip off taxes from the people, in spite of pleas nor tears, began to call the satraps of tax collectors and Tsarist Russia.Later the term began to be applied to all statesmen, governors and captains, is rugged.One of them - Arakcheev.He went down in history as an extremely merciless warlord, to harass the soldiers drill, Fruntov and corporal punishment.There was even a new term cruelty - Arakcheyev.In ancient Persia, as not all the different satraps pious disposition.There is evidence, as the killing of King Darius III.He was satrap of Armenia, but in view of the fact that there was no one who could take the reins of the country, took the imperial throne.After 6 years of incomplete betrayed and brutally murdered the other princes.Having organized a conspiracy, they grabbed Darius III, inflicted many wounds spears and left to die on the road.It is noteworthy that the leader of the conspirators named Bess.
After merciless bosses Tsarist Russia began to call the satraps of the Bolsheviks, carried out the repression of the wealthy citizens, who shot the royal family, even the children.Satrapi called Stalin, Beria, Hitler, all those who are committed and is committing crimes against humanity.This word is used in the literature.So, recently released a new journalistic novel Y. Udovenko "satraps Satan" in which the author describes real events occurred hiding various crimes corrupt officials in Russia, occupying the highest positions of state power.Another book - "Son satrap" - written by Henri Troyat.Its plot is based on the memoirs of the author of his childhood.