comma - the most simple and mundane, but at the same time and the most insidious sign.Its production involves an understanding of how it is built and structured, which senses appear and disappear, if it is wrong to put a comma.Of course, in a small article can not be described, in which cases a comma and list everything, focus only on the most common and simple.
listing and homogeneous terms
correct formulation of commas in a simple sentence begins with the knowledge of the rules that the homogeneous parts of the sentence must be separated by a comma:
I love, adore, I adore cats.
I like cats, dogs, horses.
Difficulties arise if between homogeneous parts of the sentence is the word "and."The rule here is simple: if a single union, the comma is not needed:
I love dogs, cats and horses.
If the union is greater than one, then put a comma before the second Union and beyond:
and I love dogs and cats, and horses.
Otherwise, a comma before the conjunction "and."Rule dictates setting the mark in any case, and also applies to the Union, "but", and the union "yes" to mean "but»:
My neighbor does not love dogs and cats.
Cats love cautious people, but shun the noisy and evil.
Definition with the personal pronoun
Difficulties with where need a comma there, and when it comes to determining.But here, everything is simple.
If a single definition refers to the personal pronoun, it is separated by a comma:
Satisfied, she walked into the room and showed the purchase.
then I saw this dog.She is happy, wagging tail, shaking and jumping all the time on the host.
If you study the rules of the cases in which a comma, then the third item should be a separate definition.
Under separate definition is meant primarily was involved in trafficking.It is separated by commas when follows the word, to which:
boy, after reading travel books, never pass indifferently by the travel agency or by the store with tents and flashlights.
Cat could hardly wait for treats now purring and gently looked at the host.
widely-read travel books boy never pass indifferently by the travel agency or by the store with tents and flashlights.
could hardly wait for the cat treats is now purring and gently looked at the host.
comma and the simple and complex sentence separated single gerund and participial turnover:
pomurlykat cat lay down on my knees.
dog growl, yet calmed down and gave us a talk.
make some comments on the new draft, the chief retired.
introductory words - these are words that show the accuracy of the information and its source or related to the information of the speaker.
These are words that could potentially be deployed to offer:
This artist, of course, won the hearts of all his contemporaries.
Natasha seems, is not going to take care of his father.
Leonid, apparently, has no idea about what has recently emerged as many people.
If the proposal is present appeal, and it is not a pronoun, then it must be separated by commas both sides.
Hello, dear Leo!
Goodbye, Lydia Borisovna.
You know, Mary, I want to tell you?
Unfortunately, ignorance of the cases in which a comma handling often leads to an illiterate design business letters.Among these errors - and pass a comma in handling and staging extra point when pronoun:
Paul E. Good afternoon! (necessary: Good afternoon, Paul E.! )
Svetlana Borisovna we have prepared for you our new samples.( necessary : Svetlana B., we have prepared for you our new samples.)
How do you think it is advisable to conclude this agreement?( necessary : Do you think that this treaty is expedient to conclude?)
comma complex sentence
In general, all of the rules regarding the cases in which a comma in a complex sentence, reduced essentially to one thing:All parts of any complex sentence should be separated from each other punctuation.
Spring came, the sun shone, and bustling sparrows, ran triumphantly children.
He bought a new computer as the old could not work because of a small amount of memory and compatibility with new programs.
What else to do if you do not have fun, except when it did not do?
At the head of the procession was a certain red-haired boy, he probably was the most important.
comma in a complex sentence is placed in all cases, except for combining words, and if at the junction parts of the sentence does not need another sign, first of all - the colon.
Exception: combining word
If parts of a compound sentence together some one word (for example, subordinating conjunctions), the comma between the parts of the proposal is not put:
When spring came, and the birds flew, our company is somehow revived.
Wed .: Spring came, the birds flew, and our company is somehow revived.
This word may be not only at the beginning of the sentence:
We'll go to the meeting only as a last resort, only if all the conditions will be specified and the text of the contract will be agreed.
comma or a colon?
In conjunctionless complex sentence instead of a comma by a colon if the meaning of the first part of the second disclosed:
It was a wonderful time we drew what they wanted.
Now he has started the most important: he was making a gift for mom.
dog no longer wanted to walk: the owners are so intimidated by her training, that it was easier to sit under the table.
sentence with the word "like»
Many errors concerning, in some cases, a comma, arise from a misunderstanding of the difference between the two meanings of the word "like."
first meaning of the word - a comparative.In this case, in a bid to turn the comparative separated by commas:
leaf, like a butterfly, rose higher and higher .
second meaning - an indication of the identity.In such cases, turn to the "how" is not allocated by commas:
Butterfly like an insect little interest to people who are accustomed to see in animals a source of warmth and communication.
therefore offer: « I like your mom will not let you spoil your life » punctuation can be executed in two ways.If the speaker - really listening mom, then the word "like" is used as a word indicating the identity ("I" and "mother" - this is one and the same), therefore commas are not needed.
If the speaker compares himself with his mother listening ("I" and "mother" - is not the same thing, "I" compared "with the" mother "), then commas are needed:
Ias your mother will not let you spoil your life .
In that case the "how" part of the predicate, and not put a comma:
Lake as a mirror.( Average .: The lake is like a mirror, reflecting the clouds and shone).
Music as life.(Music as life lasts forever.)
Formal take the necessary point: to trust or not?
Pay attention to the cases in which a comma, help distinguishing marks proposals.But do not trust them too.
For example, it is primarily for the fact you put a comma before "that."The rule seems to be unequivocal: "Before" to "always put a comma."However, any rule is not to be treated too literally.For example, the proposal "to" may be so:
He wanted to talk to her to learn the truth and to tell us about how to live life.
As you can see, the rule is working, but the second "to" does not imply a comma.Nevertheless, this is a fairly common error:
We went to the store just to explore the prices and to see what all you can buy for dinner in the city.
right : We went to the store just to explore the prices and to see what all you can buy for dinner in the city.
The same is true of the word "like."We have already mentioned that, first, the word has two meanings, and secondly, it may be included in different parts of the sentence, so the conventional wisdom to trust the wording "before" how "is always a comma" not worth it.
third common case will take the necessary formal point - the word "yes."However, it should be treated with great caution.The word "yes" has several meanings, including - «and»:
He took the brush and the paint went.
flocked daw yes crows and blue-tits as there was no and no.
These formal signs should rather be treated as a potentially "dangerous" places.Words such as "to", "what if", "how", "yes" may signal that this proposal could be a comma.These "signals" to help avoid missing commas in sentences, as a rule, concerning themselves of these signs, no circumstances should not be overlooked.
This placement of commas when needed, rather, to focus not on the "rules", and the meaning of setting the mark.Comma generally intended for separating homogeneous parts of the sentence, parts of a complex sentence, as well as fragments that do not fit into the structure of proposals, which are alien to him (treatment, introductory words, and so on. D.).The rules only concretize each case.This applies even to the formula "needed a comma before the" to "."Rule it actually specifies the general principle of punctuation design of complex sentences.In general, of course, by writing to think!