In any biocenosis there cycling of matter.This means that they are constantly moving and moving from inanimate nature to live and back.The source of energy for this process is the sun.His energy in the first cycle is converted into chemical energy and then into mechanical and then into heat as a result of food for organisms in biocenosis.
These relationships also are called trophic chains.
For a complete study of relationships biocenotic different organisms in science applies the concept of the food chain.Biology gives him the following definition: it ranks species or groups of organisms, among which food relations are orderly, and each preceding link in the chain is the food for later.
links of the food chain
in any food chain, there are several links.
first link are producers or manufacturers.Their role is performed autotrophic plants that are in the process of photosynthesis convert solar energy into chemical energy.
second link are consuments.They are herbivores (primar
third link - it decomposers.They are represented by the microorganisms which degrade organic residues to inorganic substances.
In the transition from one trophic (nutritional) level to another is always a loss of matter and energy tenfold.This is considered a regularity and environmental called the rule of the ecological pyramid.
located at the base of the pyramid producers.Above them are the primary consumers.The next step is the secondary and tertiary consumers.At the top predators are located.The height of the pyramids can be of various lengths depending on the food chain.Usually it does not exceed 4-5 units due to the rapid decrease of energy.
It is important that the composition of each unit can include several types of eating a monotonous diet.And the animals who eat different food, can take an unequal position in the chain, or even go to different chains.
Types of food chains
All biocenoses presented certain food chains.They are the following names: dendritic, pasture.Each type has its own characteristics, and begins with certain organisms.So, pasture supply chain - an example of the relationship of food, starting with green plants capable of photosynthesis.This circuit is typically underlies the ecological community.Dendritic view organisms begins with using energy released during the processing of organic waste substances.
examples of food chains
trophic interaction of organisms in ecosystems are quite complex.Often there are parallel supply chain.Examples: grasses - small rodents - predatory animals;grasses - herbivores (ungulates) animals - large predatory animals.These chains unite representatives of different tiers of biocenoses and implement stable relations between them.These interactions - a grazing food chain.The example above shows the sequence of building units therein.
complex system of trophic relationships within the ecological community ensures its stability, dynamism and integrity.If disequilibrium within the species (population decline in the epidemic, human activity), which is a link in the chain, there is a complete or partial destruction of the entire ecological community.
What is the grazing food chain?Examples include the following: people consume small rodents to save his grain land.As a result, died from lack of food, a lot of predators, for which they served food.Next decomposers become little organic process (dead) residues and produce insufficient amounts of minerals.The consequence of this eventually became sparse vegetation due to lack of inorganic substances.As a result, the entire biocenosis can oskudet and become a different type.
as water is interesting and visual relationships of organisms.It also vnutripastbischnaya supply chain.Example: cleaned the pond, causing algae and zooplankton disappeared.The result was the extinction of small fish that feed on them.Further there is the disappearance of predatory fish.As a result, reduces the number of microorganisms, species diversity of plants and animals, the whole system breaks down.Restoring it will require considerable time and certain conditions.
Thus, food communication within the ecological community are the main factors of its stability and development.