noun is a great, independent part of speech.Recall that it designates the object.That is, to this part of speech belong to words that answers the question "what?"or "who?".Grammatical attributes of noun - a decline, the number, case, gender, animate, as well as the division into equity and common nouns.
Morphological and syntactic role nouns
We now consider this part of the question in more detail.The morphological features of nouns are divided into two groups: permanent (immutable) and non-permanent (variable).Let us consider them briefly first, and then more fully describe the first.Persistent signs of a noun - this division on their own / common nouns, inanimate / animate.These are the same type of declension and gender.Little or no signs of a noun - and the number of deaths.
The proposal, this part of the speech can play any syntactic role.However, more often than nouns act as a supplement, or subject.As the introductory words or treatment, they are not members of the proposal.
mutable and immutable characteristics
In this part of the speech, as we mentioned, has its own morphological characteristics - immutable and mutable.Persistent signs of a noun - it is immutable.They relate generally to the entire word.Variable same - only to its individual forms.For example, the noun "Natalie" is proper, animate, 1 SCR., FIt can be put into any shape, but these symptoms will necessarily be maintained."Natalia" can be singular and plural (a sign of the plural noun - an appropriate ending), as well as in the various cases.There are other examples.That is, the number of deaths - non-permanent signs nouns.One should distinguish between them and not to be confused with the analysis.Permanent and non-permanent united by the fact that it is the morphological characteristics of the noun.
Own / common nouns
This division is made on the basis of particular importance.Proper names are called specific, separate subject, face - uniform items, that is, either a specific number.Compare, for example, such nouns:
- turnip, a fairy tale, the river, the country, the lake, the child (nick)
- "turnip", Baikal, Volga, Russia, Alexei (own).
Diversified common nouns.They are included in the next level of value:
- abstract (in other words, abstract): miracle, happiness, fear, joy, surprise;
- specific: rod, notebook, mouse, paper, computer, desk,
- collective: audience, the nobility, foliage, young ;
- real: coffee, milk, oxygen, water, gold, iron .
to proper names are different people's names and place names, nicknames animals, names of works of art, literature, etc. Examples: "Gingerbread Man", "teenager", Ural, Ob, bugs, Sasha, Sasha Alexander andetc.
inanimate / animate
continue to consider permanent signs of a noun.This, as we have already mentioned inanimate / animate.Nouns that are animated, called objects living and inanimate - lifeless.
Examples First: ant, dog, child, father, mother. Inanimate - it laughter, delight, toy, software, lilac, war, ocean, orange.
morphology is important for the following:
- In the plural form of nouns animate accusative coincides with the genitive form.Example: I saw near school friends boys and girls (VP = RP.).At the same inanimate nouns accusative form corresponds to the nominative.Example: I love movies and books (VP = I.p.).
- in the singular at the animate noun belonging to the masculine, accusative form coincides with the form of the genitive.Example: several men in the room (VP = RP.).And inanimate masculine nouns form the accusative case corresponds to the nominative.Example: Mom baked a cake (VP = I.p.).
All other words belonging to this part of the speech, different forms of the nominative, genitive, and accusative.Symptom inanimate / animate, so you can determine not only the value, but also to recruit respective endings of words.
Rhode nouns: average, female, male
nouns have gender.It is their constant morphological feature.This part of the speech by gender does not change.There are three types in Russian: average, male and female.They have a different set of endings.Rod had animate nouns is determined largely gender as words signify male and female.Examples: boy - the girl, the man - the woman, the husband - wife, brother - sister, father - mother and others. That is correlated with gender grammatical features.
belonging to the same genus have a certain inanimate nouns are not motivated.Words such as pond, lake, river, sea, ocean are members of different genera.This accessory can not be determined by the value of these words.
endings are morphological indicator of one kind or another.
Nouns general kind
small group of nouns is quite unusual.Of interest are those words that they can be referred to as individual female and male.For example, it is like a daredevil , slowpoke, muddler, cruel boy, slut, badass, ignorant, ignorant, crybaby, greedy, sleepyhead, glutton, clever. have such words form coincides with the words denoting the feminine gender.They have the same set of endings.But different syntax compatibility.
For example, it can be said in Russian: " He is clever! " and " She's so clever! ".Thus, we learn from the floor animate facial shape pronouns used in the text (in this case), or in the past tense of the verb or adjective.Example with the verb: " Sonia awake " and " Sonia already awake ".These nouns have a special name - they refer to a noun general kind.
should be noted that it does not belong to the words that represent the profession.You probably already know that many of these nouns are masculine.Examples: linguist, geologist, economist, engineer, driver, doctor. However, they may designate not only males, and females.Examples: " My father - a doctor ", " My mother - a doctor ".Even if a word belongs to a representative female past tense verbs and adjectives can be employed in both genders.Examples: " doctor came " and " doctor came ".
How can you determine from the immutable word generation?
There are also immutable nouns.Their peculiarity is that they are borrowed.In the Russian language at such words has sort.But how can it be determined?To make it really easy, if you understand the meaning of the corresponding word.Consider some examples.
Madame - mesё - y is an animated face kind words corresponds to the floor.
Chimpanzee, kangaroos - words that referred to animals, have a masculine gender.
Sukhumi, Tbilisi - city names are masculine nouns.
Zimbabwe, Congo - the names of the States - a neuter.
Yangtze, Mississippi - the designation of rivers - female.
scarves, coats - inanimate objects, basically they are neuter.
Declination of nouns: general characteristics
Nouns have a decline.It is a special type, in which the words are changed.Nouns vary according to case and number.Depending on the availability of appropriate forms of words in various cases and numbers they belong to one of the declination.A total of three - the first, second and third.One of them is the vast majority of nouns in Russian.Declination - unchanging, permanent morphological feature.
belong to the first decline nouns masculine and feminine endings with - I and - and in the nominative.Examples: lecture, Anna, Anna, earth, water, grandfather, father, mother.
The second are masculine nouns with nominative zero ending, as well as the average, if the initial form ending in - or e - of .Examples: Alex, genius, building, lake, sea, Alexander House, a brother, a father.
third declination up words belonging to the feminine, which are in the form of a zero ending IpExamples: night, dust, shaking .
There are also heteroclite nouns.These include those which have closure characteristic for different types of declination.Such nouns rather small.They are very ancient.But in today's speech are some frequency.Examples: flag, flame, name, time, the crown, the udder, the burden, the seed, the tribe, the stirrup.
These are permanent features of the noun.This is a very important material that should be observed.An analysis of this part of the speech - one of the main topics in the Russian language.At school some detail are signs of a noun (Grade 4 - the first acquaintance, graduating class - in-depth analysis in preparation for the exam).On examination it requires a good knowledge of this part of the speech.Signs of nouns should therefore be firmly in mind.