Modern researchers natsieobrazuschih processes and the phenomenon of national identity insists that the most important factor in the formation of any nation is the formation of their own state, through which it will be able to express their fundamental interests and priorities in life.Because so long live traffic Basques, Catalans and other minorities in Western Europe.However, the most numerous people who, obviously, is ready to issue itself as a nation, but still do not have their own state, are the Kurds.Nationality has the greater number of representatives than many European nations.According to various estimates, the Kurds are thirty to forty million people living in different countries of the world.
Who are the Kurds?
Nationality This is a collection of a number of tribal groups of Turkic origin.Their homeland and the most dense area of modern settlement - the territory on the east of Asia Minor.Modern Kurdistan (known as the region) is divided immediately among several states: Turkey, Iraq, Iran and Syria.Naturally, the absolute majority of the representatives of this nation is Sunni Muslim.Although there are also Christians, Catholics and even Orthodox Kurds.Nationality This is also widespread in other countries in the Middle East as well as in Europe and the CIS.
This nation is one of the oldest in Asia Minor.Its origin is today a very controversial issue.Thus, it is believed that the Kurds are descendants of the Scythians.Other scholars derive their ancestry from inhabited the ancient Persia and Mesopotamia tribes Kurt.Genetic studies indicate the haplogroups of modern kinship with Kurdish peoples of the Caucasus: Azeris, Georgians and Armenians, as well as Jews.
Kurdish question in Turkey
Actually, it is such a large discrepancy in the number of people to their actual status of national minorities in several eastern states.For the Kurds, whose nationality has long denied by the Turkish government, were subjected to cultural oppression until the 2000s.For years the Kurdish language was banned in the local media.The situation is also exacerbated by the fact that the Kurds in Turkey, for the most part are at a low stage of social development in comparison with the Turks themselves.At the same time, according to some experts' estimates, their number reaches 20% of the population.Intensive growth of national consciousness came here after the collapse of the Ottoman Empire.Throughout the XX century in Kurdistan unorganized struggle waged weak.Seriously, it could only take shape under the influence of Marxist ideology in the late 1970s - early 1980s.Under the influence of the separatist Kurdish paramilitary organizations and pressure European countries insist on the democratization of Turkey, the local government was forced to make concessions in the 2000s.Soften the restrictions on the use of their language and cultural expression.For some time there were regular TV channels in Kurdish opening national schools.
Kurdish issue in other Middle Eastern countries
Kurds in Iraq, as well as in Turkey, living in compact groups in certain areas.For a long time they were fighting for their identity with the local monarchy, and later - with the regime of Saddam Hussein.In the early 1990s Gulf War nearly even helped create their own independent state.However, the attempt failed separatists.In the 2000s Iraqi Kurdistan was a very broad autonomy within the state.Syrian Kurds living in the northern regions of the country, accounting for 9% of the population.The cultural situation of the people here is worse than in Iraq and Turkey, as in Syria is still forbidden to use the Kurdish language, the names of private schools, books and other publications.However, here there are local paramilitary organizations tending to the creation of autonomy.