One of the unique attractions of the Moscow Kremlin is a world-famous Tsar Bell.This exhibit is considered to be a kind of Russian art of the eighteenth century and the supreme achievement of foundry in Russia.In addition, the Tsar Bell is a magnificent historical monument.
idea of creating
Empress Anna Ivanovna signed in 1730 a decree ordered to cast a bell weighing ten thousand pounds.It was necessary to take the broken instance, adding the metal.With the release of this document and began the history of the Tsar Bell.
Who cast the famous giant?
initially look like a skilled master in Paris.However, the royal engineer Germain, who was offered the case, refused to work.He accepted that requirement as a joke.
consecutive pour bell Grigorieva, who crashed during a fire in 1701, a master of his time Ivan MOTORIN.It was launched in 1730 for its success in the Moscow office of artillery helpers Motorin was isolated master, ten students and two officers.
Before working artillery office were made drawings.And pre Motorin was cast a little model of the future giant.It weighed twelve pounds.All drawings, cost estimates, as well as two models developed by the lifting mechanism for approval was sent to St. Petersburg.All the preparation and approval of the project were created within two years.In this regard, the work itself conceived for the production of bell-shaped, as well as the construction of furnaces began only in January 1733
In order to get the shape of the world's largest bell drawings Russian masters was made two patterns.One of them was intended for internal profile of the product, and the second - for outdoor.
Forming a giant bell was made on the Ivanovo area.For this ten-pit had been dug.Oak beams, interconnected metal rim, were reinforced its sides.Additionally pit lined with brick.For the lower base form on driven into the bottom of the oak piles laid iron bars.Only then it began the process of production of ingots bell.Once it has been installed a second manufacturing template that matches the external outlines of the giant.Upon completion of works has been raised form of hooks.For this purpose special devices.
The next step was finally trimmed blank.For the clapper was attached to the roof rail loop.The last operation process - set in a special slot on the top of the casing so-called ears.
All work on the creation of the Tsar Bell was completed November 25, 1735 This event was made up of evidence.Weight of the largest bell in the world amounted to two hundred per ton of nine hundred twenty-four kilograms.His height - 6.14 m and diameter - 6.60 m. Unfortunately, the complete casting giant Ivan MOTORIN could not, he died.His father's work was continued by his son Michael, who previously took an active part in the work.
To Tsar Bell had a good casting Ivan Motorin was taken special design of the gating system.The form, which is filled with liquid metal, do not fall toxins and other contaminants.This was made possible thanks to a special tank, which was always filled to the brim.This pure metal of the cup comes in the form, and slag, which had a light weight, it remained on the surface.
When casting a giant needed to create certain conditions to form hot metal to withstand the pressure.To do this, the land was filled with all the space that lies between the walls of the casting pit and cover.
know the history of the Tsar Bell and the unprecedented fire.After casting more than a year carried the inscription on this amazing work of art foundry.
do on it, and decorative ornaments.Work is already coming to an end, when the Kremlin broke out a large fire.It happened in May 1737 fire destroyed the wooden construction and the tent that had been erected over the casting pit.Rascal bell began to pour water.From the temperature difference in the body of the giant cracks that led to the fact that it broke away from a sizable chunk of which weight was eleven and a half tons.
Rise of the casting pit
Tsar Bell, whose history began so badly for a long time could not reach.Until 1836 he was in the casting pit, which had cleared, was surrounded by a railing and stairs made.According to her visitors going down and admired the great work of art.
July 23, 1836 held a brilliant rise of the bell.At a specially prepared ice rinks it moved and placed on a stone pedestal, which has an octagonal shape.Soon it was established four giant arm supporting the ball on top of that is a bronze cross.Where is the Tsar Bell now?At the same pedestal in the Kremlin.
Tsar Bell planned to solder several times.However, the work has not been carried out.I stop this high cost spikes.In addition, there were concerns that, even restoring the bell will not be able to achieve its normal sound.That is why, if you visit the Kremlin, Tsar Bell will meet you in the form in which was once removed from the casting pit.This unique monument is of great historic significance.That is why the experiment with them is simply unacceptable.Tsar Bell for the children and for the older generation - is a history of the Fatherland.
study unique monument was held in 1979. At that time it was completed and restoration.The works consisted of inspection bodies and drawing up a special giant map on which are fixed size, position, and the number of formed cracks.
During the restoration of the bell surface cleared by multiple layers of coatings which distort the appearance of a giant.In parallel, we had a small repair pedestal.On the surface of the earth raised a splinter bell, which was recessed into the cultural layer on forty centimeters.
All the works were carried out by experts and academics from the Military Academy named after FEDzerzhinsky.This was done by constant consultation with the All-Union Scientific Research Institute for Restoration.It should be noted that work on the development of technology and techniques restore the historic monument of this type was made for the first time.
unique sample of art foundry
those who are visiting the Kremlin, Tsar Bell will meet in its original form.Giant regained silver-gray color, who gives a greenish patina.Specific shimmer and natural tone returned to bronze.On the cross which crowns oglave, shiny gold.It was restored with the use of gold leaf.Clearly you can see the elegant decoration and artistic images are the adornment of the bell.Beauty sculpted jewelry catches the eye.The lower and upper part of the body is decorated with a giant frieze, which is a pattern of palm branches.Unfortunately, with the metal filling in the form in some parts of the bell took swabs.Clearly this can be seen in the images of some figures.Despite this, thousands of people attend every day the Kremlin now appreciate the beauty of the historical monument.
Tsar Bell in Moscow was established nearly two and a half centuries ago.However, the known giant every year increases.Amazing monument of Russian art molding fits well into the architectural composition of the Kremlin.Tsar Bell, as well as the nearby him the Tsar Cannon, can not be separated from the artistic appearance, has worldwide fame.
During casting the bell master MOTORIN received little pay.It was only a thousand rubles.
The bell has an inscription that he was cast Motorin Ivan and his son Michael.The famous master of foundry business to capture their name, filed a petition to the Senate.Empress Anna Ivanovna, it was approved.
proposal to establish a giant bell was received by the sculptor Carlo Rastrelli.However, the son of the world famous architect Francesco Rastrelli asked for his work a very high cost.As a result, his services declined.
Images Tsar Bell, General Denikin used for the production of the White Guard thousand-cuts.The money of the people are called "bells".