period reign of Nicholas I in the history of Russia called the period of reaction and conservatism.Indeed, after the defeat of the Decembrist revolt Emperor has sought to strengthen the empire, making it the most part by force.The king himself was aware that only such methods are not to appease, so I went to a number of changes, one of which was the reform of Kiselev.
beginning of the reign of Alexander's successor was marked by a powerful uprising, which involved including the privileged strata of Russian society.It is extremely frightened new emperor, so in relation to the conspirators had taken the most stringent measures, and five leaders of the rebellion were executed.At the beginning of the investigation, Nikolai saw all the ugly picture of the internal situation of the country.Liberal layers of high society insisted on carrying out extensive reforms with which the king flatly disagreed.However, he made a small concession to public opinion, so that was removed odious figure of Alexander the Board Count Arakcheev.But in fact this was not the end, the case continued Arakcheyev many followers of the graph remains in power, who enjoyed the full confidence of Nicholas.
First Steps Nicholas I
Yet the emperor surrounded himself and truly progressive-minded people.These were MM Speransky, EF Kankrin and Kiselev.With these figures and linked the main transformations Nicholas era.At the beginning of his reign, the emperor did not give special attention to the peasant question, but over time the king and his entourage all the more inclined to think that serfdom - is evil, and landlords are on a powder keg of new riots.But fundamentally solve the problem the government feared, so the rate was on the evolutionary and careful reform.One of these steps was to be the reform of the state of the village Kiselyov.Pavel Dmitrievich was known as a consistent supporter of the abolition of serfdom, for 20-30-ies of the XIX century, several times handed the note to his Majesty with proposals to improve the situation of the peasants.Therefore, Nikolai found his candidacy is quite suitable for solving the peasant question.
Especially for reform in 1837, a Ministry of State Property, the head of which was appointed Earl P. D.Kiselev.The essence of the reform was to create Kiselev a competent authority, which would be fully versed in the peasant question and the improvement of life and economic life of the peasants.Immediately after the appointment of the graph starts to change.First of all, he changed management system peasants.In the provinces introduced special Exchequer, they in turn submitted to the district, consisting of several counties.In addition, the reform involves the introduction of Kiseleva municipal and rural self-government, a special court for minor offenses decisions among farmers.There was also introduced a new system of tax collection, its main idea - accounting profitability of peasant farming.
ideas and implement reforms
peasant reform Kiseleva is not exhausted.At the insistence of the direct count in many rural counties began to open medical and educational institutions, with the lack of lands tried to fight through the resettlement policy.Peasant communities migrate to other regions of the country to give a small refund for the first time.This line of peasant policy is more developed, the family of peasants did not want to leave their homes.The main provisions of the reform Kiseleva means raising the level of the crop in the cultivation of the land, raising the yield of peasant farming.To this end, the members of the rural community were taught advanced methods of agriculture, but farmers with more suspicious of all innovations, which led officials to a state of discontent, and often subject to administrative measures against the peasant community.
consequences of changes
One of the consequences of the policy address the issues management decisions became widespread introduction of planting potatoes.Frequent crop failures and famine had to leave in the past.Provincial and county officials forced way the peasants seized the best land, forcing them to plant potatoes and harvest confiscated and redistributed in its sole discretion, sometimes sent out to other places.Thus, the authorities have tried to insure in case of crop failures, this phenomenon is called social plowing.But the peasant community saw it as an attempt of the state administration of serfdom, of all State-owned villages wave of riots rescission public plowing.In this regard, reform of Kiselev failed.
discontent landlords laps
general, conversion came with large slip in the first place this was due to the fact that most landlords treated them with great fear, and some have expressed dissatisfaction with the policy of Count Kiselyov.Their concerns were limited to the fact that the advancement of the state peasants to increase their desire to move into the category of serfs government.But if they do this at the very least tolerated, the big plans of Paul D. of personal liberation of the serfs, giving them small plots and precise definition of the size of their rent and labor obligations cause them violent discontent.Reform of the public village Kiseleva recognized mostly landlords harmful, it causes fear, and in the government.According to the beginning of the dismantling of the reactionary ministers of serfdom could lead to an increase in social movements throughout the country.This is the most wary of Nicholas I, therefore, all further attempts to resolve the peasant question were postponed by the emperor on the long term.
In general, for all the board Nicholas reform Kiseleva was the only significant attempt to resolve the peasant question, it is in many ways paved the way for a future elimination of serfdom, and the important role played in this Pavel Dmitrievich Kiselev.