What is feudal ladder.

Feudalism as a natural stage in the development of human society has an important place in history.The system appeared in the sunset of antiquity and existed in some countries up until the nineteenth century.

new mode of production

So the feudal system, which replaced the slave system was by definition progressive.The most dynamic part of medieval society - the warriors and princes - seizing fertile land available, turning them into their property.Its base was the large estates, which was divided into two parts: the manor with the estate and settlements with dependent peasants.Part ownership, belonging to the owner, called "domain".This releases the special domain of the ruler of the country, which he was free to dispose of at its discretion.Here, in addition to the arable land, also included forests, meadows and reservoirs.

Plus Sizes estates allows to produce the necessities of life, so this economic system was of a vicious character, and in the history called "natural economy."Those products, which in the economy is not enough, could be obtained in an exchange with another fief.Farmers who live in it, were personally unfree and are required to carry a certain list of obligations in favor of the master.

Hierarchical medieval society

Thus arose the feudal ladder, ie a situation of social groups, which showed their status in society.This kind of pyramid on top of which was the supreme ruler, the first feudal lord of the country - the prince or king (depending on the state).

So what are the differences of the feudal ladder?They simply explained.There were a monarch loyal aides who rely fee for the service.If the early stages of the head of state allowed them to collect taxes from the population and keep them as part of his fee, the system was improved later.Now the ruler of his domain gave his servants - vassals - plot of land, inhabited dependent population.

Land ownership was hereditary, but the supreme right to it belonged to suzerain, so in the case of adultery vassal he could take away the estate.In large subjects were the servants of the king, which was necessary to contain.The feudal lords of their own estates granted them land with a number of serfs.The size of these plots dependent on the importance of this man for the overlord.

Finally, at the bottom rung of the feudal estates were simple knights who had not been able to confer servants ground.And at the base of the pyramid are the "engine" of the whole system - the serfs.Thus, those who entered the feudal ladder, were the main estates of medieval society.

principles of world order in Europe

feudal ladder, or (otherwise) hierarchy was rigid structure.It was practically absent any mobility.Born a serf, a man and his dying, the ability to change their social status was minimal.This gave a certain stability of medieval society, bordering on stagnation.

development of feudalism is almost identical in all countries.Originally created vast state which is a conglomeration of different level of tribes and tribal organizations.Then these areas under a single sovereignty, received some assistance, grew stronger, which subsequently led to their reluctance to obey the supreme ruler.Former major powers turned into a "patchwork quilt", woven of different size and development of counties, principalities, and other feudal units.

So begins a period of disintegration of the once united state.Large organic farms feudalism had its advantages.So, the owner was disadvantageous ruin their own farmers, he supported them in various ways.But it had the opposite effect - enhances the enslavement of the population.

Relationship immunity assumed full right of suzerainty, which meant both for farmers and the protection of, and submission.And if at the beginning of personal freedom remained behind them in full, then they gradually lose her instead of stable existence.

Ethnic differences of

medieval feudal ladder had its national nuances.Interpretation of the vassal-liege relationship was different, say, in France and England.The development of the British Peninsula went at a slower pace than in continental Europe.Therefore, a full feudal ladder in England has developed completely by the middle of the twelfth century.

Through a comparative description of the two mill can distinguish the general and special.In particular, France operated a rule "vassal of my vassal - not my vassal", which meant the exclusion vzaimopodchineniya in the feudal hierarchy.It gave some stability to society.But at the same time, many landowners understand that right too literally, which sometimes led to conflict with the royal power.

In England acted diametrically opposite rule.As a result of the belated development of feudal here acted norm "vassal vassal of my - my vassal."In reality, this meant that the entire population should be subject to the monarch, regardless of seignorial facilities.But in general the feudal ladder in all countries looked about the same.

relationship socio-economic processes

Overall classic feudalism gave way to a period of feudal fragmentation, which plunged Europe from the tenth century.Until the thirteenth century was a process of gradual centralization and the creation of nation-states on the basis of the new conditions already.Feudal relations were modified, however, persisted in Europe until the 16-17 centuries, and if we take into account Russia, or even almost to the 19th century.

centralization process, which began in Russia in the 13th century was interrupted by the invasion of the Mongol invaders, which caused a prolonged existence of feudal survivals in our country.Only after the abolition of serfdom in 1861, Russia embarked on the capitalist path of development with both feet.