Nutrition now occupy a leading position in all scientific and medical works.After all foods that one eats, strongly influence their health.Therefore, more and more people have become interested in what is a balanced diet.The principles of good nutrition are detailed in many medical articles, and if you want you can learn to eat so that food brings only benefits.But not only the composition of the human diet affect his health.It is important to all: how much he eats, when any gaps between meals observes how combining products together.It is particularly important to pay attention to it when feeding children, the elderly and those who suffer from any illness.
Why power is so important?
each person it is clear that food is a prerequisite for the maintenance of human life and health.What are the functions it?
1. In providing the human body with energy.Therefore, the basis of a balanced diet is required to take into account the energy costs of man.And consume food should make up for them, but no more.Otherwise, the excess will be stored as fat.
2. With food must be ingested substances that are used for the construction of their cells.It is primarily the proteins are also essential minerals, fats, and carbohydrates.
3. Another function is to supply the body's supply of vitamins, essential for the production of some enzymes and hormones.
4. Recently, scientists have determined that the power supply is also affected by the immune system.What a person eats, directly affects the body's defenses and the ability to resist disease.
That is why it is so important to know what a balanced diet.The principles of a balanced diet is required to take into account these features.
value of essential nutrients
Proteins - the most necessary substances to the body.They are used for the construction of cells producing hormone and as an energy source.A person should eat in a day, depending on age and gender, about 100 grams of protein.
fats are the main source of energy.They should be about 35% of the daily ration.And more useful are vegetable fats containing unsaturated fatty acids and vitamins.
Carbohydrates also serve as a source of energy.They need to eat up to 500 grams per day, depending on the energy of man.However, excessive quantities can lead to obesity, since if they are not recycled into energy, then converted into fat.
Vitamins and minerals are also needed for normal human activity.It is important to bear in mind that they are not formed in the body and received only the diet.
Nutrition: concept and principles
Food should ensure proper growth and human development, to improve their health and help prevent diseases.It must be balanced by energy consumption, nutrient according to gender and age.Only in this case we can talk about a balanced diet.Everyone should strive to do so, only then he will be able to enjoy their health.The principles of good nutrition are:
- moderation, which does not allow the food to consume more energy than it consumes during the life;
- diversity - is a very important principle of a balanced diet.Mankind uses thousands of different food products in a variety of combinations.But the basis thereof are proteins, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals.To all of them come from food into the body, the diet should be as varied;
- diet is also very important for health.Moreover, this principle is violated most often by people.
Why so important moderation in eating?
In preparing the diet should be a balance between energy consumed and come from food.To do this, it takes into account gender, age, weight of the person and of his activities.The rules and principles of rational energy supply measured in kilocalories.For example, for a person engaged in mental work, they make up about 2,500 kcal, and for athletes - 4000 kcal.If the food is less than energy supplied, the body uses its own reserves of fat and glycogen.During prolonged fasting or malnutrition start also consumes proteins resulting in muscular dystrophy.But excessive intake of dietary energy is also harmful.All that is not spent, deposited in the form of adipose tissue.Therefore, the energy balance is so important in the diet.The amount of food consumed and its composition should depend on the age, body weight, physical activity, and even residence rights.
A lot of things must take into account a balanced diet.The principles of a balanced diet is required to include the knowledge of the qualitative composition of food.To ensure the normal life of a person is necessary that all the nutrients from food in a certain ratio.On the average for a normal healthy person engaged in mental work, we recommend a ratio of one part protein, one of the four parts fat and carbohydrates.It is also important that the food people consume enough vitamins and minerals.What you need to know about food composition and quantity of its basic ingredients?
1. A person should consume about 1 gram of protein per kilogram of body weight.On average, it turns out 50-80 grams.And the number of plant and animal protein should be distributed approximately equally.According to studies, excessive consumption of protein leads to reduced efficiency and the development of fatigue.After all, for its processing it consumes a lot of energy.Protein is in the meat and dairy products, nuts, beans and buckwheat.
2. Fats are essential for the body's energy and participation in the construction of cells.Furthermore, only their presence can be absorbed some vitamins.The average person should consume about 100 grams of fat.Moreover, the most important are those which contain an essential fatty acid and fat soluble vitamins.This is mainly vegetable fats, which must consume more than animals.But from margarine and synthetic oils is to refuse, since they are poorly absorbed.
3. Carbohydrates - the main source of energy.Average person takes an average of 400-500 grams, the main part of which should be starch.In a typical diet from carbohydrates produced 60% of all energy.Get them a person can of honey, fruits and berries, sugar, vegetables and some grain products.
4. Vitamins are an essential tool for the formation of enzymes and hormones.In general, they fall into the body with food.Most of them are in fruits and vegetables, breads and cereals.With a lack of vitamin developing certain diseases and a decrease in immunity and health.
5. Minerals are very important for the maintenance of normal human life.To not observed the lack of them, the human diet should be varied.
6. Fiber is necessary for normal work of the digestive tract, although it is not digested.It is very necessary for the normalization of the intestinal microflora and excretion of toxins.Fiber is found in fruits and vegetables, legumes and cereal products.Only eating it in sufficient quantity, can maintain health and to prevent the emergence of certain diseases.
Besides the qualitative composition is very important to follow the correct diet.It is mainly governed by hunger, but in some cases, allow a person overeating.It has become a real scourge of modern mankind.So now the importance of a balanced diet is that people are taught not only be guided by appetite, but also follow some rules:
- you need to follow persistence in food intake per hour.In this case, the body produces reflex to a specific time allocated saliva and gastric juice, which provides better digestion;
- food must be fractional.Scientists have proved that twice-meal is dangerous for health.It is best to eat 3-4 times a day, but in small portions.Sometimes it is advisable to add a couple of meals without increasing its total amount;
- and breakfast, and lunch and dinner should be balanced in nutrients.It is necessary to choose such products to at every meal the body receives protein, fat, carbohydrates, minerals and vitamins in their rational ratio;
- it is very important to choose the right time for breakfast, lunch and dinner, as well as the amount of food distributed.We must try to get in between meals 4-6 hours passed, and supper had to sleep 2-3 hours.The bulk of food should lie at lunch on the second place - breakfast, dinner is to eat less.
Human Nutrition in everyday life
Almost everyone is clear how important it is for the health of a balanced diet.The principles of good nutrition are explained in many medical writings.But not everyone understood scientific terms, for ordinary man in the street is difficult to apply these ideas to life.Therefore it is possible to formulate some rules more clearly sets out the basis of a balanced diet:
- do not overeat;
- follow the benign food: it must be intact and not contaminated by microorganisms;
- eat as varied as possible;
- cooking methods give preference to cooking and to eat more raw fruits and vegetables;
- when buying ready meals sure to pay attention to composition and caloric content on the label;
- there should be more often, but in small portions;
- drink enough water;
- to try to eliminate the use of salt, sugar, coffee, alcoholic beverages, canned goods, cakes, meats and refined products;
- often try to include in the diet of fresh fruits and vegetables, honey, herbs, nuts and cereals;
- should sit down at the table just in a good mood and during the meal is not distracted by extraneous objects.
Researchers found that digestion is influenced by various enzymes.To its components are properly digested and not violate the complex process of digestion, is recommended in the diet are certain rules:
- do not mix the starch with acid products;
- protein and starch is better to eat food at different times;
- sugar inhibits the secretion of the stomach, so it is not desirable to have proteins and starches;
- it is desirable to use a liquid separated from the solid food;
- apples, grapes and other fruits to eat for 1-2 hours before the main meal.A pear is better to eat after a meal;
- fats also delayed the process of digestion, so a large number of them can cause problems.
Most of the people are now fed wrong than causing irreparable harm to their health.And this is due primarily to the lack of knowledge on the subject.And more and more people are suffering from metabolic disorders caused by malnutrition.This leads to the appearance of nervous and mental diseases, deficiency diseases, diseases of the liver and blood.Therefore, a balanced diet and its principles should be known to everyone who wants to stay healthy.Violation of these rules leads to a decrease in efficiency, disease resistance and longevity.Proper food a person needs not only to replenish energy costs and growth, but also for the receipt of the necessary vitamins and minerals, are not synthesized by the body.Their balance promotes normal flow of all vital processes.Nutrition enhances the absorption of nutrients.
therapeutic and dietary food
All recommendations relating to food, you can apply only to normal, healthy person.They usually do not take into account the individual characteristics of the organism.Therefore, if there is any deviation in the applied health diet.Principles of rational nutrition and diet are basically similar, but in addition to diet stave off hunger and the intake of necessary substances should promote health and assist in curing diseases.The following types of diets:
- for weight correction;
- for pregnant and lactating women;
- designed for people in certain occupations.
diet in some diseases
principles of rational and clinical nutrition include not only the special regime meals, but also the rejection of products that can be harmful to health.Diet plays an important role in the treatment of many diseases.Under certain pathological conditions necessary to increase or decrease the amount of protein, fat or carbohydrate.
Nutrition for obesity should be balanced.It is necessary to strictly monitor the number of calories consumed, give up sugar, salt, flour products, fatty foods and alcohol.
principles of nutrition with rickets provide an introduction to the child's diet a sufficient number of foods rich in phosphorus and magnesium, vitamin D and calcium.Lure give sick children in the 4 months.The diet they need to enter the vegetable puree, mashed yolk, liver and meat.
Another disease in which it is important to observe a diet - it is hypothyroidism.It is necessary to reduce the intake of carbohydrates, salts and liquids.Useful, on the contrary, fruits and vegetables, dairy products, meat and rye bread.The principles of good nutrition in hypothyroidism include limiting fat and carbohydrate, but the increase in protein.
Regulations child nutrition
Shortcomings in catering strongest impact on children.This leads to a delay of growth and development and for the emergence of various diseases.Therefore, it is important to observe basic principles of good nutrition for children.Make sure that the child's diet was not overloaded with carbohydrates, so it is necessary to limit the intake of sugar, baking and pastry.Exclude from the diet of children should also be carbonated beverages, convenience foods, sausage and fast food.This food is nothing but harm will.Especially the need to pay attention to the fact that in baby food was sufficient vitamins and minerals, especially calcium, iodine, iron, fluorine, and folic acid.The child's diet should be a lot of fresh vegetables and fruits, dairy and grain products.It is necessary that he ate nuts, honey, herbs and drink enough water.