In everyday life, nosebleeds are not uncommon and can happen as an adult and a child.At first glance, it is absolutely harmless phenomenon, but in fact may well be felt serious pathology.Faced with such a situation, it is important to know what first aid for epistaxis should be given to the patient, because this state is very dangerous, and in some cases life-threatening.
pathological condition in which stands out from the nasal passages blood called epitaksisom.Fairly widespread phenomenon, it can occur at any age.
If attacks are rare, patients almost do not go to the doctor and improvised means stop nosebleeds.Reasons for first aid treatment will vary when relapses occur with a large loss of blood often causes deterioration of health.
Causes of epistaxis
There are local and general causes of nosebleeds.
Local causes include:
- nose injury (fracture, contusion).
- tumors in the nasal cavity (polyps, tumors).
- Degenerative changes (deviated septum, chronic stage of atrophic rhinitis).
- burns the nasal cavity of various etiologies.
- Dry nasal membranes.
- ENT pathology (adenoids in children, sinusitis).
- sharp increase (hypertension) or low blood pressure (hypotension).
- body overheating, heatstroke.
- Cardiovascular diseases, haematopoietic systems.
- kidney disease, liver.
- Hormonal changes (pregnancy, onset of menses in girls).
- Hit a foreign body in the nose (especially in children).
Although pathology usually goes away on their own (with the help of specific manipulation), first aid during epistaxis should be given in any case.It is advisable to do this as soon as possible to blood loss did not cause deterioration of the general state of health.
In clinical practice distinguish nosebleeds at the place of location, intensity and duration.In 90% of cases pathology accounts for Kisselbaha zone (anterior septum with choroid plexus).At this point the vessels close to the surface.Such bleeding is not intensive and poses no danger to life.
At the back localization damaged large blood vessels, allocated a significant amount of blood.First aid during epistaxis in this case should be promptly and conducted by experts.Intensive stop bleeding on their own is virtually impossible.
in intensity and volume of blood loss are distinguished:
- slight nosebleeds - passes without symptomatic deterioration of health of the patient.It lost to a few milliliters of blood, which is not life threatening.
- average (moderate) nosebleeds - the patient may feel malaise, the emergence of tinnitus, appears pale skin.It loses about 15% of blood (300 ml).
- Strong (intensive) nosebleeds - first aid to the patient in this case should be provided immediately.Blood loss can be up to 1 liter.It is fraught with hemorrhagic shock, loss of consciousness, a sharp decrease in blood pressure.
when requesting a qualified medical specialist will help primary examination and questioning of the patient.Sometimes produce differentiated diagnosis in order to distinguish from pulmonary epistaxis or gastric.
To determine the type of pathology doctor prescribes rhinoscopy (nasal endoscopy).The procedure allows to investigate the source of the bleeding, take the material for analysis, to produce microsurgical interventions.X-ray is necessary in cases of suspected fracture.
Why is bleeding from the nose in children?
most common cause of epistaxis in children - damage to the nasal cavity.This occurs most often when picking his nose, but can also occur when foreign objects (small parts of toys, buttons).First aid for the nose bleeding should be provided to the child in time.
In adolescence, the body is subjected to high loads (academic, physical, psycho-emotional), and hormonal changes, which can also cause the development of diseases.
First aid for epistaxis:
algorithm of actions in helping patients with nasal bleeding must adhere to the following rules:
- patient should reassure.Emotional excitement, excitement strengthen the heartbeat, which in turn increases blood loss.It's enough to breathe evenly and deeply.
- Making the correct position.The patient is desirable seat, tilt your head slightly forward.It is strictly forbidden to throw back his head back!In this position, blood will enter the stomach, which can cause vomiting.Tilt your head forward, you can monitor the amount of blood lost.
- Push the sides of the nose with your fingers.This will help hold the vessels.
- Apply cold on the nose (ice soaked in cold water the fabric).
- dripped into the nasal passages vasoconstrictor drops ("Naphthyzinum", "Farmazolin").
- Enter cotton swabs in the nose.This is done in cases of suspected bleeding or back if you do not apply the above measures.For best effect of tampons wetted with hydrogen peroxide solution.
specialized first aid for epistaxis needed if self to stop him for 20 minutes is not possible.In this case, the patient must call (mandatory) for an ambulance.
patient with epistaxis can not be laid.This situation will only strengthen the selection of blood that can enter the lungs and esophagus.It is also forbidden to blow his nose to free the nasal passages by blood clots.This will lead to the edge of the thrombus and rebleeding.
First aid for epistaxis in children is not different from that of adults, but parents need to coordinate the actions of the child.If the cause of the pathology is the penetration of foreign objects, to get its own is prohibited.Any such manipulation could further damage the mucosal surface and more bleeding.
If the bleeding stops to use a tampon, it is necessary to moisten the hydrogen peroxide, before removing from the nostrils.Pulling a dry swab may damage the blood clot and the blood will again.
for medical aid should be treated with frequent recurrences of nasal bleeding.Also, indications are vomiting with blood from the patient, high blood pressure, the presence of pathologies that affect the formation and blood clotting, injury nose, a large blood loss.
How to treat?
In severe cases, shows a specialized first aid.If nasal bleeding that lasts more than 20 minutes, require hospitalization.Drug therapy will be chosen by the physician according to the type of pathology.Hemostatic agents may be administered by intramuscular injection (i.v.) or orally.
Blood clotting increases:
- «Dicynonum" (etamzilat sodium) - taken in pill form or by injection administered.It produces fast hemostatic effect and does not cause increased bleeding, which makes it possible to use it for a long time (by a doctor).
- Calcium chloride - appointed to enhance the action of hemostatic drugs.It helps improve contractility of blood vessels.
- Aminokopronovaya acid - reduces the permeability of blood vessels and blocks the process of blood thinners.Administered intravenously, but has some contraindications.
- «Vikasol" - an analog of vitamin K, is indicated for the problems of blood clotting.
can affect the problem by using the recipes of traditional medicine.Plants such as shepherd's purse, nettle, yarrow, has hemostatic properties.
In rare cases, when the first aid for epistaxis and drug therapy do not give positive results, surgery is indicated.The simplest way to stop allocating surgical blood from the nasal mucosal surface is moxibustion (coagulation) laser, electricity, ultrasound, liquid nitrogen or special substances (silver nitrate solution, trichloroacetic acid).
Depending on the severity and frequency of epistaxis recurrence may appoint an injection under the mucosal surface of the nose "Lidocaine" or "Novocain" ligation of blood vessels.