Alkaline earth metals are elements that belong to the second group of the periodic table.These include substances such as calcium, magnesium, barium, beryllium, strontium, and radium.The name of this group suggests that the water they give an alkaline reaction.
alkali and alkaline earth metals, or rather their salts, are widely distributed in nature.They are represented by minerals.The exception is radium, which is considered a rare element.
All of these metals have some common qualities and will integrate them into a single group.
alkaline earth metals and their physical properties
Virtually all of these elements are solids grayish (at least under normal conditions and ambient temperature).Incidentally, the physical properties of alkali metals are slightly different - although these substances are quite resistant, but are easily exposed.
Interestingly, with a serial number in the table, and this figure is increasing metal density.For example, in this group has the lowest index of calcium, while radium density similar to iron.
Alkaline earth metals: chemical composition
For a start it is worth noting that the reactivity increases according to the serial number of the periodic table.For example, beryllium is fairly resistant element.In the reaction with oxygen and halogens comes only with strong heating.The same applies to magnesium.But calcium is able to slowly oxidize even at room temperature.Other three members of the group (radium, barium and strontium) rapidly react with oxygen at room temperature.That is why these items are stored, covering a layer of kerosene.
Activity oxides and hydroxides of these metals increases under the same scheme.For example, beryllium hydroxide is not soluble in water and is considered an amphoteric compound, and barium hydroxide is a fairly strong alkali.
alkaline earth metals and their brief characteristic
Beryllium is a persistent metal light gray color, is highly toxic.The first element was detected in 1798 chemist Vauquelin.In nature, there are several beryllium minerals, of which the best known are the following: beryl, phenacite, danalite and chrysoberyl.By the way, some isotopes of beryllium is highly radioactive.
interesting that some forms of beryl are valuable jewels.These include emerald, aquamarine and heliodor.
Beryllium is used in the manufacture of certain alloys, rocket fuel.In nuclear power, this element is used to slow neutrons.
Calcium is one of the most famous of alkaline earth metals.In its pure form it is a soft substance with a silvery white hue.The first pure calcium was isolated in 1808.In nature, this element is present in the form of minerals such as marble, limestone and gypsum.Calcium is widely used in modern technology.It is used as a chemical source of fuel, as well as a fire resistant material.It's no secret that the calcium compound used in the manufacture of building materials and medicines.
This element is also found in every living organism.Basically, it is responsible for the movement apparatus.
Magnesium is a lightweight and quite malleable metal with a characteristic greyish color.In its pure form it was isolated in 1808, but its salts became known much earlier.Under natural conditions, the magnesium contained in minerals such as magnesite, dolomite, carnallite, kieserite.Incidentally, the magnesium salt provides hardness.A huge number of compounds of this substance can be found in seawater.