Natural sources of hydrocarbons: general characteristics and use

It should be noted that hydrocarbons are widespread in nature.Most organic materials derived from natural sources.In the process of synthesis of organic compounds as raw materials use natural and associated gas, coal, lignite, oil shale, peat, products of animal and vegetable origin.

Natural sources of hydrocarbons: natural gas.

Natural gas - a natural mixture of hydrocarbons of different structure and some trace gases (hydrogen sulfide, hydrogen, carbon dioxide), which is filled with rocks rocks in the crust.These compounds are formed by hydrolysis of the organic substances at great depths within the Earth.Found in the free state in the form of huge clusters - gas, gas condensate and oil and gas fields.

main structural component of natural gas is a combustible CH4 (methane - 98%), C2H6 (ethane - 4.5%), propane (S3N8- 1.7%), butane (C4H10 - 0.8%), pentane(S5N12- 0.6%).Related petroleum gas included in the oil composition in the dissolved state and is released from it due to the reduction of oil pressure when picked up to the surface.The gas and oil fields, one ton of oil contains 30 to 300 square meters.meters of gas.Natural sources of hydrocarbons - valuable fuel and raw materials for the industry of organic synthesis.Gas is supplied to gas processing plants where recyclable (oil, low-temperature adsorption, condensation and distillation).It is divided into individual components, each of which is used for certain purposes.For example, the hydrogen produced from methane, synthesis gas, which are the basic raw material for producing other hydrocarbons, acetylene, methanol, methanal, chloroform.

Natural sources of hydrocarbons: oil.

oil - a complex mixture, which consists predominantly of naphthenic, paraffinic and aromatic hydrocarbons.The oil composition comprises asphalt-resinous substances, naphthenic acid, mono- and disulfides, mercaptans, thiophene, thiophane, hydrogen sulfide, piperidine, pyridine and its homologs, as well as other substances.Based on the refined products using the methods of petrochemical synthesis yields over 3000 different products, includingethyl, benzyl, propylene, ethylene dichloride, vinyl chloride, styrene, ethanol, isopropanol, butylene, various plastics, synthetic fibers, dyes, detergents, drugs, explosives, etc.

Natural sources of hydrocarbons peat.

Peat - the sediment of vegetable origin.This substance is used as a fuel (mainly for power plants), chemical raw materials (for the synthesis of many organic substances), antiseptic litter on the poultry farms, especially in the component fertilizer for vegetable and field crop.

Natural sources of hydrocarbons: xylem or wood.

Xylem - tissue of higher plants, of which water and dissolved nutrients come from the roots of the leaves and other plant organs.It consists of a cell with stiffened shell which have vascular introducer system.Depending on the type of wood, it contains different amounts of pectin and mineral compounds (mainly calcium salts), lipids and essential oils.Wood is used as fuel, it can be synthesized from methyl alcohol, atsetantnuyu acid, cellulose, and other substances.Some types of wood obtained dyes (sandalwood and logwood), tannin (oak), resins and balsams (cedar, pine, spruce), alkaloids (plants of the nightshade family, poppy, buttercup, umbrella).Some alkaloids are used as drugs (chitin, caffeine), herbicides (anabasine), insecticides (nicotine).