Russia as a country with a traditional patriarchal society for a long time did without zakonosoveschatelnogo body - Parliament.First State Duma was convened only in 1906, by order of Nicholas II.This decision was necessary but rather late, especially if we take into account the years of the emergence of its counterparts in other states.In England, for example, Parliament came back in the late Middle Ages in France - at the same time.USA, which formed in 1776, created such authority almost immediately.
And what about Russia?In our country, we have always maintained a strong centralized authority king-priest, who himself had to ponder over all the ministers proposed laws.With this first State Duma has not appeared after the Troubles, under Peter I, nor even under Catherine II, who planned the convening authority, similar in function to the executable Parliament.There were only arranged board.
Throughout the XIX century proponents of constitutional monarchy (as in Russia there were a dime a dozen) were in favor of a parliamentary system.According to her, the emperor and the ministers were working on a bill, the Duma would discuss them, make changes, and sent her the documents adopted at the signature to the king.
However, because of the policies of some sovereigns, such as Nicholas I, 1, the State Duma as in the XIX century in Russia and has not appeared.From the standpoint of the ruling elite that was a good sign, because it can be absolutely no worry about self-will in the adoption of laws - all the threads in his hands the king.
Only the growth of protest moods in society forced Nicholas II to sign a manifesto on the establishment of the Duma.
First State Duma opened in April 1906 and became an excellent portrait of the political situation in Russia at that period of history.In it were deputies from the peasants, landowners, merchants and workers.According to the ethnic composition of the Duma it was also mixed.There were Ukrainians, Belarusians, Russian, Georgians, Poles, Jews and representatives of other ethnic groups.In general, it was the first State Duma in 1906 was a real benchmark for political correctness, which would be the envy even today in the United States.
sadness, however, the fact that the First Duma was completely incompetent political monster.The reasons for this are two.The first is that the Duma of the first convocation was not the zakonosoveschatelnogo body, but a kind of a victim of a political era.The second reason - to boycott the Duma by the left-wing forces.
Because of these two factors, first the State Duma in July of the same year "has come" before the dissolution.Unhappy that there were many rumors in the community of science fiction about the definitive abolition of the Duma, which, incidentally, were not confirmed.Soon the Second Duma was convened, which was slightly more productive than the first, but more on that in a different article.
Duma of the first convocation was for Russian history, a kind of starting point of democratic reforms.Although it was established later, their role in the development of parliamentarism played the first Duma.