Earth - the only planet in our solar system where life began.In many respects it was promoted by the presence of her six different shells: atmosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere, lithosphere, and tsentrosfery pyrosphere.All of them are working closely with each other, which is expressed by an exchange of energy and matter.In this article we will look at their composition, the main characteristics and properties.
Earth's outer shell - it's the atmosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere.
gas shell of the Earth - the atmosphere, at the bottom of it borders with the hydrosphere and lithosphere, and extends up to 1,000 km.It is divided into three layers: the troposphere, which is moving;after it is stratosphere;her - ionosphere (upper layer).
height of the troposphere - about 10 km, and weight - 75% by weight of the atmosphere.In it there is a moving air horizontal or vertical manner.The above is the stratosphere, which extends 80 km upstream.It forms fibers, moving in a horizontal direction.During the stratosphere there is the ionosphere, which ionizes the air constantly.
size hydrosphere - water shell of the Earth, is 71% of the planet's surface.High salinity water - 35 g / l.Ocean surface has a density of about 1 and a temperature of 3-32 ° C. The sun's rays can penetrate no deeper than two hundred meters, and ultraviolet - 800 m.
Field of living organisms - the biosphere, it merges with the hydrosphere, atmosphere and lithosphere.The upper edge of the biosphere rises to the upper spheres of the troposphere and the lower reaches the bottom of the depressions in the oceans.It is isolated sphere of animals (more than one million species) and the sphere of plants (more than 500 thousand. Species).
thickness of the lithosphere - the stone shell of the Earth, can vary from 35 to 100 km.It includes all the continents, islands and the ocean floor.Below is pyrosphere under it, which is a fiery shell of our planet.In it there is an increase in temperature of approximately 1 ° C every 33 meters deep.Probably at great depths under the influence of the enormous pressures and very high temperatures and melted rock are in a state close to a liquid.
Location central shell of the Earth - the kernel - 1800 km in depth.Most scientists supports the theory that it consists of nickel and iron.In it the temperature of the components of several thousand degrees Celsius, and the pressure - 3000000 atmospheres.State of the nucleus is not reliably studied, but we know that it continues to cool.
geosphere shell of the Earth are constantly changing: fire - thickened and hard - thickens.This process is in its time provoked the appearance of solid stone blocks - the continents.And in our time does not stop the fiery sphere of its influence on life on the planet.Its impact is very large.Constantly changing the contours of continents, climate, oceans, atmospheric composition.
Endogenous and exogenous processes affect the continuous change of the solid surface of the Earth, which affects the planet's biosphere.
All outer shell of the Earth have in common - high mobility, because of which the slightest change in any of them immediately extends throughout its mass.This explains why the relative homogeneity of the composition of the membranes at different times, even though they have undergone significant changes during the geological development.For example, in the atmosphere, according to many scientists, originally had no free oxygen, but it is saturated with carbon dioxide.And later, as a result of plant life, it acquired the current state.Likewise unchanged and the composition of the water shell of the Earth, as evidenced by the comparative figures of the salt composition of closed waters and the ocean.Just changed the whole organic world, it still changes occur.