To correct assessment of the suitability of different types of soils for economic and industrial purposes there is a classification of soils.Guided by it in laboratory, field and geological studies, it is possible to objectively characterize any type of soil and reliably determine the feasibility of its use in one way or another.
soil classification reflects the conditions of their formation, the nature of origin, as well as the chemical composition, mechanical and physical properties.Of course, the evaluation of each individual species of soil produced by a variety of physical symptoms, criteria and specifications.A huge variety of soils in its composition, structure, and calls for the introduction of a large number of different characterizing features on set, and which carried out the classification of soils.
All soil types according to the nature of their structural relationships can be divided into two broad categories: rock and neskalnye.Within these categories of soil classification provides division into different groups depending on the origin and nature of education.Rocky soil on the grounds are divided into igneous and metamorphic.A neskalnye - on sedimentary and artificial origin.
In addition, within each sub-division also provides varieties of soils on different grounds.The basis for this classification can be physical characteristics of soils, their common chemical or biochemical properties.According to emit coarse featured, silt, clay, nutrients, sand and other soil types.A more detailed classification is already produced, depending on the predominant mineral composition and particle size, the degree of heterogeneity of the soil and its plasticity, as well as a number of other features.
Classification of clay soils is perhaps the most significant for the design, calculation and construction of various facilities.Since these soils are most common.The difference between this type of soil on the other classification categories is their mechanical stability and water-colloidal structural links.Among the clay soil is allocated a sufficiently large number of varieties, based on selected indicators of physical, chemical and mechanical properties.
value of these soils for the construction industry and the national economy is that they are virtually the end product of a geological evolution and have the best resistance to natural conditions in the region of their occurrence.These types of soil and accepted to fine education, having in its composition at least three percent of clay particles and exhibiting good quality plastic and swelling when wet.These properties are unique and distinctive features of clay soils.
In accordance with its particle size distribution are divided into loam, clay and sandy loam.In general, their main solid component (mineral particles) is a polydisperse system.In mineral composition such soils are extremely diverse.Often, they make up the foundation of fine particles of quartz and minerals, sometimes as part of the soil there are various carbonates and rock salt.