Two years before the Battle of Kulikov Mongolian troops preparing for a raid on the Moscow principality.Khan Mamai gathered five tumens led Murza Begich sent them to put in place the Moscow Prince Dmitry Ivanovich, called Donskoi later.During the reign of Dmitry Donskoy Muscovy gaining military strength.Prince just found out about preparing the campaign, and, gathering his squad, moved towards Tatars.The decision to take the fight on the territory of the Ryazan principality was motivated by several factors:
- Begich had rear powerful grouping of hostile troops under the command of an unreliable ally Oleg of Ryazan.
- Mongolian cavalry was cut off from supply lines, and she had no time to delay, if Begich preferred to stall for time.While waiting for reinforcements, or in search of a better position, his troops began to dissipate in the counterinsurgency actions.
- Prince Dmitry Ivanovich deliberately imposed Tatars place for battle, disadvantageous for the Mongol cavalry action.The battle took place on the Vozha between gullies and swamps, which did not give scope for the use of cavalry.
Russian troops take up defensive positions on the River Vozhi.And left and right wings of his army Dmitry hidden in nearby ravines.Tatar troops, ignorant of the real numbers of the enemy and confident of victory, began to cross to the opposite shore.The Battle of the River Vozha began with the oncoming cavalry battle.At the same time there were two strike from both flanks.Mongolian cavalry, squeezed on three sides and deprived of their leaders, began unorganized retreat.
Russian troops, fearing an ambush, did not dare to start prosecution.As a result, the Tatars were able to leave.But the retreat was conducted so hastily that was thrown a military convoy, which was captured by Russian troops.
battle of the vozha river has several unsolved historians moments.Until the end and did not explain the behavior of Prince Oleg of Ryazan.On the one hand, he did not come out openly against the Tatars, and missed them on their territory.At the same time, Begich not subjected Ryazan towns and villages looted.Perhaps he hoped to help a recent ally of Mamaia, which some time ago to help him in the fight against Khan Arapshi.
not quite understand the position of Dmitry Ivanovich, who gave up pursuit of the Mongolian troops.Perhaps he took into account the experience of past battles.When the Tatars fascinated by hostile troops feigned retreat, and then combined and applied to a surprise attack.
Battle River Vozha allowed to test new tactics of Russian troops.The prince's retinue did not wait for the enemy in the cities, and she imposed the fight and chose the location for future battles.Against heavy Mongol cavalry resisted perfectly united ranks of Russian lancers.
battle of the vozha river was of great importance for the national identity.Even after the punitive expedition conducted Mamaia showed that Tatars did not dare to enter without preparation into a direct confrontation with Moscow principality, limiting the looting of Ryazan.After the battle on the river Vozha Muscovy immediately began to prepare for a new battle that rocked two years on the field Kulikov.