development of three classic styles of ancient Greek architecture - Doric, Ionic and Corinthian - lost in the dark ages.Of these three specific methods of construction Corinthian style is the most decorative and most familiar in modern times.Is he on the basis of the Doric and Ionic architectural composition types (orders), which is determined by a combination of column proportions in construction and certain details of its decoration.His name was from the Greek polis of Corinth, but probably was developed in Athens in the fifth century BC.The most famous use of the sample style extant, can be found in the temple dedicated to Apollo Epicurius, located in the northeastern part of the Messiah (in ancient Greece, part of Arcadia) in Bass.
But it is curious that the Corinthian order is not part of the church, who had a Doric colonnade around and Ionic order in Celle.Zella - a walled space inside the church, which housed the image of the deity.The place is a sanctuary (Hiero), where there lived a deity.And only one Corinthian column is in Zell.The mysterious feature of which is the cause of debate among archaeologists and historians.Some scholars argue that it is - an example of the offerings to the deity.The same pattern can be seen in the temples of ancient Greece, built over the next century.A well-known example, when the Corinthian order was used as a part of the temple, a type horegicheskogo monument Colonnade (six columns) monument of Lysicrates in Athens, built in 334 BC.
According to a beautiful legend about the origin of the column, told by Vitruvius, an ancient Greek master of bronze casting Callimachus once was walking in the vicinity of Corinth and came upon a burial mound in which rested a girl.It was of the willow wicker basket with gifts in the form of toys, top-coated plate.Large acanthus leaves - plants around the grave, through the bars have sprouted and formed something like a bouquet.Kallimaha very impressed with this motif.He, when he returned home, he sketched and then embodied in bronze capitals - in the form of a circular basket, surrounded by acanthus leaves.How plausible is this story is unknown, but the fact that the first sample is really made of bronze, but later Corinthian order was embodied in stone.
In ancient Greece, it was perceived only as a decorative form of Ionic.It should be said that the Greeks rarely used it in the construction of temples, and after the fifth century BC.More development, he received the Romans, also developed several variants.Little wonder that the Romans, who were called more practical people, especially in relation to the ancient Greeks, have chosen the most luxurious of the Greek orders.In any case, with Doric and Ionic he is considered one of the three classical orders.
Repeating many of the features of Ionic columns, Corinthian order has pronounced differences.The barrel of the column (similar to the trunk of the Ionian style) alternate flute (flat, deep), often ending with a capital in the form of a curved petals.Two types of the columns are different profile database (at Corinth it expands and becomes thinner), but especially small caps.Capital in the form to reveal the calyx, which is surrounded by flowers arranged in rows.At the bottom of the cup covers the narrow waist and the top of her rise stems, stem from the quadrangular plate, decorated with a flower in the middle.On the stove is the entablature, the frieze is covered with stucco ornaments (palmettes and other figures), and repeated above the cornice, broken into the brackets on the lower side.
It should be noted that it is possible to find and more distant predecessors as decorative complexity, for example, in ancient Persian architecture.Although, of course, naturalistic acanthus leaves - a sure sign that this is a Corinthian construction and detailed treatment of the columns also played a big role in the spacious halls, which are very fond of Persians.Scape covered with small fluted, they set on a beautifully decorated bases in the form of an overturned bowl, and end beams are vertically set volutes or digged the half-bull (unicorns).