Inquisition (from the Latin. "Tracing", "investigation") - is a special church court for heretics who practiced in the 13-19 centuries.Already in the 12th century when Frederick I Barbarossa and Pope Lucius III was installed especially strict order of search of heretics and the investigation of their cases by the courts of the bishops.Inquisitor - is the person carrying out the role of the judge handed down death sentences pledged to enforce the secular authorities.
of the Inquisition as an institution spoke at the III 4th Lateran Council (1215), which established a «per inquisitionem» (order of persecution of heretics), the legal basis for the rumors which were declared.
In the 13th century Pope Gregory IX transferred the prosecution of heresy by the bishops inquisitors.In Europe it was established tribunals whose mandate is to investigate cases, sentencing and executions against heretics.
Spanish Inquisition was particularly brutal.It is supported by the royal power, so had very strong positions in Europe.Only during operations chief inquisitor Torquemada in Spain in the 15th century was burned alive more than ten thousand people.Thank Spanish Inquisition eclipsed all others.Where it reached its peak of development and has become the benchmark for others to follow in other countries where there was the Inquisition.Torture is marked by diversity, ingenuity and ultimate cruelty.
In 1238 the pope was formally established the Inquisition in Aragon.In the 15th century its activities were particularly active.By the end of the century the country's situation has changed under the influence of association in the Spanish kingdom of Castile and Aragon, liberation from Moorish domination of the south of the Iberian Peninsula and its reunification with Spain and the conquest of America, which has transformed Spain into a major colonial power.
Spanish crown continued to strengthen its position by counter-reforms, with the help of the Jesuit order.Ideal for this was the Spanish Inquisition.Royal power found in the Inquisition instrument of intimidation and repression of opponents and do not part with it until the middle of the 19th century.Inquisition deprived classes and the medieval city of liberties.
In the 15th century was established by the "new" Inquisition (1478-1483 gg.).Isabella I and Ferdinand V united Aragon, Castile and Sicily, and then the entire south of Spain.Barberis Sicilian inquisitor received confirmation of emergency powers by a married couple.In 1478 Pope Sixtus IV established the Inquisition in Castile (where it previously was not).Began mass executions.Improved instruments of torture and death machinery.In Seville from overcrowding plague broke out.When the epidemic subsided, "Bloody Harvest" continued.
Spanish Inquisition took new scope with the appointment of a new Inquisitor Tomas Torquemada.Ferdinand V at this time (1483) created the Supreme Council of the Inquisition (supra), which is engaged in the confiscation of property of the heretics.
main victims of the Spanish Inquisition were Jews, Marranos ("New Christians") and Moriscos (Moors converted to Christianity).They were officially accused of insincerity in relation to Christianity and to continue preaching the same faith (ie heresy).The purpose of their prosecution was an effort to take possession of their property, weaken the class of peasants and artisans as the support of influential grandees, to undermine the power of the latter.
Spanish Inquisition acted comprehensively, it combines the features of church and state (political) police, who ruled the Catholic monarchs.
Spanish absolutism reminded of cruel despots of the East.However, the Inquisition did not help to achieve national unity and eliminate all civic freedoms.This policy was essentially anti-national, it has done everything to prevent the occurrence of common interests between people, which are the basis for uniting the nation.