After the expulsion of the authoritarian and overbearing Tarquinius Superbus, Rome established a republican government.Roman Republic (509 - 27 BC.) In its history, took two steps: the so-called early (509-265 BC.) And late (264-27 BC.)republic.At the time of its formation in Rome rapidly develop production, which contributed to major social changes.
State system of ancient Rome in this period combines the features of aristocratic and democratic.Benefits belonged to the nobility - rich elite slaveholders.
legal capacity in Rome were only those who had the freedom, family and citizenship.The entire population was divided into free and slave.The first, in turn, accounted for two class groups: the top of the rich slave-owners and small producers (farmers and craftsmen, which is adjacent to, and the urban poor).Slaves could belong to the state or to private persons.
Roman Republic turned them into the main exploited class.The sources of slavery were taken to a military prisoner, and start practicing samoprodazha.Power masters over slaves had no restrictions.
By nationality all the free population of the country was divided into citizens and Peregrine (foreigners).Citizens become slaves and freedmen, but they were limited in their rights.
At the end of II -II in.BC.any privileged class - these were the nobles (wealthy patricians and plebs tip) and riders (commercial and financial know landowners).To participate in the assembly, as well as to hold gosdolzhnosti could only householder - the head of families.
The political system of the Roman Republic was so.The highest state authorities were the following: the Senate, the popular assemblies and the Judiciary.People's Assembly were of three types: centuriata, tributa and kuriatnye.The main role was played by meetings centuriata.By the middle of the III.BC.the structure of the meeting has changed.They were presented not only aristocrats and wealthy slave owners, and each of the bits of the wealthy citizens began to exhibit the same number of centuries.The scope of competence includes the adoption of laws, declaration of war, complaints for the death sentence.
important in socio-political life played by the Senate.Although formally it was an advisory body, but its powers and functions were financial, legal, of religious worship, landscaping, public security and foreign policy.
state office called the Judiciary.They were divided into normal (ordinary) post consuls, censors, praetors, the quaestors, etc.and extraordinary (extraordinary), created under extraordinary circumstances: wars, uprisings, etc.On the proposal of the Senate appointed by the dictators.
Roman Republic was based on the army, which played a particularly important role in public life.At that time, foreign policy was characterized by almost continuous wars.There was a struggle with Carthage for the possession of the Western Mediterranean (about 120 years, from 264 BC to 146 BC, lasted Punic Wars).Also at this period is the war with Syria and Macedonia.By 146 BCRoman Republic established its supremacy over the Mediterranean.
development of slave society in the days of the republic led to the aggravation of his social and class contradictions.In II.BC.e.crisis erupted polis organization.
The collapse of the Republic was accompanied by events such as the two Sicilian slave revolt and under the Spartacus (74-70 gg.do BC), the struggle between large and small landowners, rural plebs revolutionary movement under the leadership of the Gracchus brothers, the Allied war obscheitaliyskimrebellion against the authority of Rome, which ended with the establishment of the dictatorship of Sulla, and then - Caesar.