What we usually mean by the word "communication"?Contact us with pleasant people, the exchange of information, cooperation.At a time when every act should benefit and profit, are increasingly talking about the fact that communication should be "effective."This implies that every act of communication has a purpose, and to achieve it in preparation for an important conversation should consider not only what you say, but also non-verbal component, that is, your body language, posture, clothing and location with respect to the interlocutor.Below, we look at what constitutes nonverbal communication and sign systems from which it is composed.
Non-verbal communication - a nonverbal behavior, communication, which uses gestures and other signs.It is a way to "say no words," and sometimes our body "speaks" for us, that we may not realize the full extent.This communication takes place, even when there is no verbal exchange.There are various ways by which categorized types of non-verbal communication.One of them is the following sign systems:
1. The optical-kinetic system.This includes our facial expressions and gestures.It is obvious that the overall motor function of individual body parts (hands, face) conveys the emotional reactions of the interlocutor and usually strengthens and complements we have received information from his words.Widely described misunderstanding arising from incorrect interpretation of gestures, such as representatives of different cultures.Distributed by the opinion that it is possible to understand the gestures that are actually in the mind of your "counterpart" on this subject and published many books.Although the nose can not be scratched from the liar, and allergy, the supervisory interlocutor does not miss this component of attention.The main mistake that many who are just beginning to comprehend the science of "read" gestures - to treat each of them taken separately.Like other sign systems that make up the non-verbal communication, a system of signs and gestures capable of and, on the contrary, weaken the action words.
2. paralinguistic, extralinguistic system.They complement it through the use of tools such as tone of voice, pitch, rate of speech, laughter, a pause in the conversation.In a written statement, such as the Internet, where the set is limited to these funds, the so-called emoticons.Speech units they are not, but clarify the meaning of the transmitted message;It is also important that they are international.
3. Organization of the communicative process conditions such as space and time.This is also an important component of the situation of communication.The way the sides are arranged relative to each other, express their level of trust and attention to each other, and in the beginning of the conversation can set the tone for the entire conversation.Why so much attention is paid to where the head of the table, and where organized place for visitors;like sitting participants in the negotiations.Nonverbal communication and the sum of such things as adherence to accepted standards in the specific culture of the distance between the interlocutors.In many countries, not too close friends, this distance should be reduced to 40 cm, or instead trust the interlocutor feel a dislike.Highlight and special branch of knowledge dealing with issues of temporal and spatial organization of communication - it is proxemics.It highlights, in particular, and specific spatio-temporal characteristics of specific situations (chronotopes - term AA Uhtomoskogo).For example, it is well-known effect of "wagon companion" when unfamiliar people are particularly frank with each other.
4. Eye contact. Just how successfully develops non-verbal communication, to a large extent depends on how often and how long the sides are watching each other's eyes.That eye contact (or lack of it) helps us understand whether the partner is interested in the conversation, as it is open to dialogue.
can say that non-verbal communication, having a listed sign systems, is able to more fully convey the meaning of the voice message.However, there is an important condition that all participants of communication must use a single "language" of the code.But the selection of characters, items, such as words in the speech, is a complex task.She repeatedly tried to decide, for example, K. Bёrdvistl or P. Ekman.However, nonverbal communication is inextricably linked with speech, supplements and even replace it, and the knowledge of its components helps to correctly build communication for everyday and work tasks.