type is the main unit of classification of the soil.Provided it is in accordance with the profile of the ground.Dokuchaev in 1886, first classified types.
soils are encountered in the cultivation areas previously unsuitable for agriculture, are a special group.
Some species do not form groups (zones), found in separate areas within the zones.This is largely due to the peculiarities of rocks, wetting the terrain.
most common soil types are considered to be zoned.They (along with plant and other elements of landscape) form the natural area.
- Marshy land.These soils are formed by prolonged or excessive constant moisture (waterlogging).Typically, they are produced in forest areas temperate zones.
- Brown forest.These types of soils are mainly found in coniferous-deciduous and deciduous forests in areas with moderately warm humid climate.
- Brown semidesert, desert-steppe.These types of soils are formed in an area with a dry climate in the temperate zone, a desert-steppe plant species.
- Mountain.Is a group formed in the mountainous area.Almost all types of soils included in this category are characterized by gravelly, low power and presence of primary minerals.
- Brown.Distributed in the steppes and semi-deserts of the temperate zone.
- Meadow soils are formed under meadow plant species on the territory of the high surface moisture or areas subject to continuous exposure of groundwater.
- Saline.Common in dry areas with a high concentration (greater than 0.25%) of mineral salts, readily soluble in water - magnesium, calcium, sodium carbonates, sulfates, chlorides.
- Podzolic soils are formed in mixed forests and taiga, in a temperate continental and continental climate.They are experiencing excessive moisture and constantly washed leaking water.
- Sierozems common in deserts and semi-deserts in the subtropical zone.
- Fusion soils are formed in the subtropical, tropical and equatorial zones.In your profile have fused horizon that wet swells and gets a high plasticity, in the dry state is hard and dense.
- Tundra.Make up a combination of soils of the Northern Hemisphere, it tundra.This category includes tundra humus-carbonate, sod, and other podzolic soil.
- topsoil.These soils are common in the steppe and forest steppe zones of the temperate zone.
An important indicator for the classification of the soil is its composition.
lightweight - sandy - soil includes a large amount of sand, a small proportion of humus, small amount of clay particles.Soils higher density are categorized as severe - the clay soils.They do not crumble during processing, on the other hand, form large clumps, which makes it very difficult digging.
Stony soils are common on the slopes of mountains or hills and different fertility.Most of them take part of fragments of rocks.
basis of peat-bog soils is mostly organic matter.They are rich in nitrogen and low in potassium and very small amounts of phosphorus.However, there torfovivianitovye soils, in which, on the contrary, there is a high concentration of phosphorus.
sandy soils are endowed with many of the properties of sand at a balanced ratio, they belong to the intermediate species.These soils are considered auspicious in all respects for the cultivation of plants.