two Balkan wars took place shortly before the first World War.The first battles were purely emancipatory, anti-Turkish character.Follow-up actions were caused by contradictions between the winners of the first battle.
Balkan War (the first stage) helped oust the Turks from Europe.Union of Serbia, Greece, Montenegro, Bulgaria and the Ottoman Empire was planning to deprive all the holdings in the European territory.Subsequently, in connection with developing the contradictions within the Union of the territories returned to the Turks.In general, the Balkan wars triggered further aggravation of the foreign policy contradictions.Those fighting to some extent accelerated the outbreak of the first World War.At the same time the Balkan wars contributed to the development of military equipment.During battles used new aircraft, submarines, armored vehicles.In addition, it confirmed the value and massive rifle, machine gun and artillery fire.
First Balkan War lasted from 9 October 1912 to 30 th May 1913.In this period, Montenegro, Serbia, Greece and Bulgaria, in the Union, fought against the Ottoman Empire.The peoples of the Balkans were to perform an important historic task of national liberation from feudal oppression and the Turks.However, some of the backward peasants and the weakness of the proletariat, the intervention of the imperialist powers in the affairs of the peninsula led to the fact that exercise is not a revolutionary, and military means.
Balkan Union was headed by Serbian and Bulgarian bourgeoisie, which sought to dominate in most of Macedonia.Bulgarian representatives assumed by joining the Board of Western Thrace and Thessaloniki access to the Aegean Sea.At the same time Serbian rulers hoped to gain access to the Adriatic Sea by separating Albania.
acceleration of the First Balkan War was provoked uprisings in Albania and Macedonia, the Russian-Turkish war.The reason for the announcement of the beginning of the offensive movements of the Turks was the refusal to grant autonomy to Macedonia and Thrace and to stop the mobilization of Turkish troops.
Montenegro started military action on October 9, 1912. On October 18, the battle to take the rest of the Union (Bulgaria, Serbia, Greece).According to the plan of allies, the Turkish army was supposed to break up reinforcements from Asia Minor.It should be noted that the combined forces outnumbered the Turks, not only in numbers but also in arms, and the level of training of soldiers.At the same time the army of the Ottoman Empire took place reorganization.
a major blow to the Eastern Turkish army has suffered in Thrace.Crossing the border, the first and third Bulgarian army defeated the Turks third building.After the defeat of the fourth body eastern Ottoman army to flight.Bulgarian troops were stopped at Chataldzhinskih positions fortified strongly enough.
In South Macedonia Greek troops won the battle of Yenice and launched an offensive in Thessaloniki, which was supported by the Bulgarian attacks.The Greeks, moreover, supported by the Serbian army and promoted by Macedonia.
the Aegean Sea was dominated by the Greek fleet.
successes of the countries participating in the battles of the Balkan Union put before other great powers challenging enough.For example, Russia feared that the Turkish conquest of the capital of Bulgaria may raise the question of the Straits under adverse conditions for tsarist.Therefore, the Russian emperor offered to suspend hostilities and go to peace talks.
As a result, the complex international situation, an unsuccessful attempt to capture Istanbul Bulgarians truce was signed between Serbia and Bulgaria on the one hand and Turkey - on the other.Soon, however, hostilities were resumed.Only after the new Turkish army defeats the armistice was signed between all the countries of the Union and Turkey.
Second Balkan War was caused by the contradictions within the Union.The countries expressed their dissatisfaction with the results of the 1st battle.Military operations were conducted by Turkey, Montenegro, Romania, Greece and Serbia on the one hand and Bulgaria on the other.
a result of fighting the Bulgarians lost a substantial part of the territory of Romania withdrew from the Triple Alliance, and moved closer to the Entente.Bulgaria itself is moved closer to the Austro-German bloc.