The formation of the Golden Horde

Golden Horde was formed in the Middle Ages, and it was really a powerful state.Many countries have tried to maintain good relations with him.Cattle breeding was the main occupation of the Mongols, and on the development of agriculture, they knew nothing.They fascinated the art of war, which is why they were excellent horsemen.Of particular note is that the Mongols did not accept into its ranks the weak and cowardly people.

In 1206, Genghis Khan became the Great Khan, whose real name is - Temujin.He managed to unite many tribes.With a strong military capability, Genghis Khan and his army conquered East Asia, Tangut kingdom, northern China, Korea and Central Asia.Thus began the formation of the Golden Horde.

This state lasted about two hundred years.It was formed on the ruins of the empire of Genghis Khan and is a powerful political entity in the Dasht-i-Kipchak.The Golden Horde came after Khazar Khanate was killed, she was the heiress of the nomadic tribes in the Middle Ages.The aim, which set itself the formation of the Golden Horde, was to take over one branch (north) of the Great Silk Road.

East sources report that in 1230 a large group, consisting of 30 thousand Mongols, appeared in the Caspian steppes.It was the site of nomadic Polovtsian, they were called Kipchaks.Thousands of Mongolian army went to the West.On the way troops conquered the Volga Bulgars and Bashkirs, and then captured the Polovtsian land.

Genghis Khan appointed Polovtsian land as ulus (region Empire) to his eldest son Jochi, who, like his father, died in 1227.Complete victory over these lands has won the eldest son of Genghis Khan, whose name Batu.He and his army completely subdued the Jochi Ulus and stayed in the Lower Volga in the 1242-1243 years.

During these years, the Mongolian state was divided into four inheritance.The Golden Horde was the first of their state within a state.Each of the four sons of Genghis Khan had his ulus: Coulagot (which includes the territory of the Caucasus, the Persian Gulf and Arab territories);Jagatai (include the area of ​​present-day Kazakhstan and Central Asia);Ugadei (it consisted of Mongolia, eastern Siberia, northern China and Trans-Baikal) and Jochi (this Black Sea and the Volga region).However, the main was Ulus Ugadei.Mongolia has a total capital of the Mongol Empire - Karakorum.It happens all the public events, the leader Hagan was the main person all united empire.

Mongolian troops differed militancy initially they attacked Ryazan and Vladimir principality.Russian city were again a target for conquest and subjugation.I resist just one Novgorod.In the next two years, the Mongol troops captured all the then Russia.During the fierce hostilities Batu Khan lost half of his army.

Russian princes were separated during the formation of the Golden Horde, and therefore suffered permanent injury.Batu conquered Russian lands and levied a tribute to the local people.Alexander Nevsky was the first who was able to negotiate with the Horde and to suspend hostilities.

In 60 years there has been a war between ulus that marked the collapse of the Golden Horde, which took advantage of the Russian people.In 1379 Dmitry Donskoy refused to pay tribute and killed the Mongol generals.In response, the Mongol Khan Mamai attacked Russia.Started Kulikov battle in which Russian troops defeated.Their dependence on the Horde has become insignificant and Mongolian troops withdrew from Russia.The collapse of the Golden Horde was completed.

Tatar-Mongol yoke lasted for 240 years and ended with the victory of the Russian people, however, the formation of the Golden Horde is difficult to overestimate.Because of the Tatar-Mongol yoke of Russian principalities began to unite against a common enemy, which strengthened and made more powerful Russian state.The formation of the Golden Horde historians estimate as an important stage for the development of Russia.