In the twelfth century there was a disintegration of Kievan Rus into separate, mutually independent principality, but formally a unified state has continued to exist until the period of the Mongol invasion.Time from 12 to 16 century is considered to be a period of political fragmentation (feudal) Rus.
political fragmentation of Russia: prerequisites
among modern historians still have a debate about what was the real reason for the separation of a single strong state into smaller and fragmented.It is believed that the primary role in the historical process was played by the emergence of local boyars.Princes, the ruling Russian private lands, did not want to share the profits with the Prince of Kiev, the local aristocracy as it never needed a strong power in the field, so it actively supported their position.
In addition, at the turn of 11-12 centuries formed the system of production of goods of general consumption, which becomes a structural unit of a private fiefdom.Over time, these fiefdoms, available in different parts of the country are beginning to manufacture products only for their own consumption, not for sale.As a result, the trade exchange between the lands of the united state practically stops.Each territory under the control of a single prince, becomes a fully autonomous and is able to well being without the support of the neighboring lands.
sedentary, the development of plow farming have led to increased government vigilantes on the ground.Gradually turning into vigilantes landowners interested in having their possessions become fully independent of national laws.In this connection, the system is being developed so-called immunity, according to which the nobles landowners obtained full independence from the Grand Duke became full owners of their possessions, had the right to establish certain laws in their territory.Hence the conclusion that the political fragmentation of Russia was the result of private land ownership and the transition vigilantes to a sedentary lifestyle.By the mid-12th century on the basis of existing several decades ago, a single state made up of about fifteen independent principalities.The number of independent land of Kiev is growing at a tremendous speed, and to the 14th century up to two hundred and fifty.The largest state formations of this time are the Novgorod Republic, Galicia-Volyn, Vladimir-Suzdal principality.Each such principality is completely separate and independent from the others, has its own currency, a single army, etc.Relations between the heads of all the lands governed by the agreements and traditions.Internecine war, if carried out, it is very rare, they are based - the desire to expand their land to the neighboring principality.
Political fragmentation Russia: Implications
main consequences of political fragmentation of Kievan Rus became:
- development of new lands for cultivation of grain, the development of peasant farming;
- increase the power of the Church and its influence on the cultural life of the country;
- folding a clear system of feudal hierarchy.
Agricultural development, rapid urban growth, the output of individual Russian principalities in the international arena, the development of architecture, chronicles - these are the consequences of feudal fragmentation of Rus.In addition, a complete political collapse of the state did not take place.The power of the Kiev prince has always existed, albeit very slim.The Orthodox faith throughout the period of disunity united people of all Russian principalities, the leadership of the entire church organization was in the hands of the Metropolitan of Kiev.Before external danger Kiev prince acted as a single defender of the Russian state.Political fragmentation Russia has become an important stage in the development of the state on the way to its future centralization of political and economic take-off.