Foreign policy of Ivan the Terrible

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4 Ivan took the title of king at the age of seventeen years (1547, January).This event was of great political significance.Since the power of the Moscow State strengthened so that the authority of the ruler of any attempt to exclude people from aristocratic families closer to the top of the state.This title becoming the head powers on a par with the Byzantine emperors and khans of the Horde.

the end of the 1540s the environment of Tsar Ivan 4 formed of close people.This circle was called "Selected Rada".Domestic and foreign policy of Ivan 4, the activity of the government were aimed mainly at strengthening the central government, the expansion and protection of the country's borders.

main objective in the southern direction was to prevent the invasion of the Crimean Tatars.For this was erected Tula defense line (defensive line).In 1559 a campaign was undertaken in the Crimea, which was a failure for Russia.However, in 1572, in the summer, the Tartars managed to stop.Prince Vorotynsky managed to destroy the army of the Crimean people.

Foreign policy of Ivan the Terrible in the East is marked fairly large success.As a result, trips to top 1550s Russia to join two great powers Tatar formed after the collapse of the Horde Khanate of Kazan was conquered in 1552, and Astrakhan Khanate - in 1556 As a result, the borders of the Muscovite state expanded to the borders of Asia.In the early 1580s Russia has passed and these boundaries: a Cossack army Ermak led an expedition to Siberia.As a result of this campaign it was defeated Siberian Khan Kuchum and its lands annexed to Russia.From that moment began the development of land in Siberia.

Foreign policy of Ivan the Terrible after the acquisition of the territories of the Volga changed direction.Now the interest of the state was represented by the western lands.The objective of the outbreak of the Livonian War was the conquest of the Baltic Sea.At the beginning of the war luck was on the side of Russia.Livonian Order in 1561 finally collapsed.It should be noted that the gains of the Russian troops contradicted the interests of Sweden, Denmark and Poland.These countries have passed the territory of the dissolved Order.As a result, Russia was forced to fight not one, but three great powers.Thus, in the years 1563-64 troops of Ivan the 4 suffered a series of setbacks.

Meanwhile, fearing strengthening of the Muscovite state, Lithuania and Poland united in Rzeczpospolita.

Russia suffered defeat in the Livonian War.In 1582, an armistice was signed.According to him between Poland and Russia, the previous boundary.The following year, peace was made with Sweden.Thus, the foreign policy of Ivan the Terrible in the western sector has not led to the desired expansion of the boundaries.Moreover, Russia was forced to cede some territory (Koporye, Yam, Ivangorod).

It should be noted that the foreign policy of Ivan the Terrible is not limited to military action.Russia since the middle of the 16th century begins to strengthen its authority in the world to establish relations with Denmark, the Italian cities, the German Empire.In Russia came after India and Iran.

Ivan 4 attaches great importance to developing relations with Britain.Since 1555 in the country began to act "Muscovy Company," which had the right to trade in Russia without paying duties.To trade through Archangel, built as a seaport for fairs with the British, which was open the whole Russian north for trading.

Thus, the results of the foreign policy of Ivan the Terrible is expressed not only in the expansion of the territory of the powers, but also to establish friendly relations with the various major countries of the world.