first Mongol invasion of Russia through the Black Sea steppe began in the first half of the XIII century.Genghis Khan (Temujin) intended thus to expand its huge state, which by this time stretched from the Pacific Ocean to the Caspian Sea.
In the southern steppes of the Black Sea coast while Polovtsian tribes lived.They began to call on the assistance of the Russian princes, arguing that if today the Mongol-Tatars seized the lands Polovtsian, tomorrow will reach to the ground and Russian.
emergence of new, hitherto unknown powerful enemies, caused great fear in Russia.Only the southern lands of the princes decided to help Polovtsy in exile enemy.They were united army, but were completely defeated in the Battle of the Kalka River.Tatars also suddenly decided to leave the Russian land after his victory.
In 1227 unbeaten Khan died and his vast possessions previously divided among his sons, rule over all at the same time giving Udyog.
Part of the land went and grandson of Genghis Khan, Batu.He decided to pursue an aggressive policy of his grandfather, and to expand the boundaries of their new possessions.
In 1236 a huge army of Tatars led by Batu easily captured the capital of the Volga-Kama Bulgars, the city of Great Bulgaria, and in 1237 came close to the borders of Ryazan principality.Batu sent his messengers to local princes with the requirement to recognize his authority and agree to pay tithes.Those proudly replied, "All yours, if we are gone."
Ryazan princes appealed to the prince of Vladimir.But I say long-term consequences of fragmentation and fragmentation of Russia.Vladimir Prince Yuri Vsevolodovich decided not to give assistance, and prepare for battle and fight on their own.
Every Russian principality exerted desperate resistance of the enemy, but alone they are not able to resist the organized armies of Batu.
After the capture of Ryazan land, the Mongol-Tatars went to Suzdal.The capital of the principality, the city of Vladimir was captured and burned.It was followed by Rostov, Yaroslavl, Moscow, Tver and Suzdal.In this land, there was not a village, to which have not passed the horde, killing and burning everything in its path.And the Grand Prince Yuri Vsevolodovich died in the Battle of the River City.
In two years, the Mongol-Tatar invasion to conquer the north-east Russia.The most fierce resistance had residents of the small town of Kozelsk.For this the invaders massacred them all to a single, and from the city left in ruins.
By 1240 the troops of Batu captured and south-western Russian territory.Pal Chernigov and Pereslavl.In winter 1240 was the capture of Kiev by the Mongols.Russia was subdued.
next few years, the horde went through Hungary, Silesia, Moravia and Poland.But the Tartars were not long resist and retreated.The extreme western border conquests became the principality of Galicia and Volyn.
Thereafter, the Mongol-Tatars decided to stay in south-west of the Russian Plain and founded a new Khanate - the Golden Horde.Legally, it was subordinated to the great Mongol khan, but gradually became an independent state.The Golden Horde ruled all Russian lands in the Black Sea region, the Urals and West Siberian steppe part.
Tatar Khan has canceled the power of the Russian princes, but got over it.After the recognition of the princes of the supreme power of the Horde, they can officially rule in their principalities, receiving the so-called "shortcut."Batu personally judged which of the surviving princes of the principality which give to the board.The power of the Russian princes over his people with only intensified, as they now rely on a huge external force troops of the Golden Horde.
entire population of the principalities was thoroughly rewritten and charged to a heavy tribute.Initially, her collection was entrusted Baskakov - special officials from the Horde.Sometimes this was done infidel merchants who from their own coffers have paid tribute to the required size and then impose it on their own with the local population, making money on it.
fees, harassment and violence repeatedly called popular uprising against the Tatars.But local rulers tried to negotiate with the Horde as not to incur the repeated destruction of his people.At the beginning of the XIV century Tatar authorities still considered it more convenient to entrust the collection of tribute directly to the Russian princes.
power of the Golden Horde, gradually weakened - powerful rulers were no longer there, and internecine proceedings Khans only aggravate the situation.In November 1480 in the decisive clash of the river Ugra forces of the Russian princes were able to win over the Mongol-Tatar army.As a result, the invaders were forced to return to their historical territory.So officially ended longstanding Mongol-Tatar yoke, Russia has again become free.