Ottoman Empire

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Ottoman (Ottoman) Empire, whose history began in the 14th century (from the time of sunset Byzantium), was formed in Anatolia Turks tribes.It lasted until the state in 1922 - since the formation of the Turkish Republic.Named the Ottoman Empire after the first sultan - the founder of the dynasty of Osman.

At the beginning of the reign of Sultan expanded his inheritance, annexing territory from the Marmara and the Black Sea, a large part of the land to the west of the Sakarya River.

After the death of Uthman ascended the throne of his Orhan.During his reign, it was approved by the state capital - Istanbul (the former Byzantine city).

After Orhan ruler became his eldest son Murad 1. This great statesman was able to strengthen the presence of the forces of the state in Europe.Murad 1 in 1389 defeated the Serbian prince of Kosovo Polje.As a result of this battle the Ottoman Empire acquired a large part of the southern area of ​​the Danube.

system of government in the country was based on a combination of Byzantine, Seljuk and Arab traditions and customs.On the lands that have won the Ottomans, they tried to preserve as much as possible local traditions, not to destroy the historically established relationships.

further expand the territory of the Ottoman Empire during the reign of his son Murad 1, Bayezid 1. The most significant victory was the Battle of Nikopol in 1396 (on the Danube).However, despite the outward prosperity, the Ottoman Empire was experiencing quite serious difficulties, both external and internal.Mainly mannered behavior of the ruler, his huge harem, fine ceremony in the palace aroused many Gazi irritation.In addition, concern was and hiking Bayazid against Muslims and other Ghazi Asia Minor.As a result, most of the local Beys moved to Tamerlane and persuaded to start against the Ottoman ruler of war.

As a result of the battle in 1402, the army Bayazid was defeated, and the captured ruler.The Ottoman empire was fractured as a result of subsequent campaigns of Tamerlane.However, the sultans was retained authority over some areas of the country.

During the 15th century in the Ottoman State pursued a policy of internal reorganization and external expansion and strengthening of borders.

"gold" for the empire became the 16th century.During this period, the rules of the country Suleyman 1, attached great importance to strengthening the naval power of the state.The middle of the 16th century was the heyday of architecture and literature.

in the Ottoman Empire at that time was dominated by feudal relations and military organization and administrative system were structured legislation.

should be noted that after this time (after the reign of Suleiman 1) the majority of the sultans were quite weak rulers.In the early 17th century, the state has reformed government.Earlier there was a pretty brutal empire tradition - entering the throne of Sultan killed all his brothers.Since 1603 the brothers of the rulers and their relatives crammed in particular, a remote part of the palace, where they spent all his life, until death of the ruler.When the sultan died in his place came the eldest of the prisoners.As a result, almost all reigned in the 17-18 centuries, the sultans were not intellectual development and, of course, had no political experience.Due to the fact that it was not worthy of the ruler, a huge country began to lose its unity, and the government itself began to weaken rapidly.

a result of the Ottoman Empire in the 18th century, has lost much of its power in the Mediterranean.Completion of the Seven Years War provoked further attacks on the state.Thus, the empire acquired, but an old enemy of Austria, a new enemy - Russia.