Plagiarism and copyright in History

"young poets imitate, mature - they steal." TS Eliot, the poet.

Plagiarism - a crucial issue kopipasta era.How are people treated her throughout recorded history?The same phenomenon looked quite differently at different times.

Plagiarism in antiquity and the Middle Ages

Once a Latin word meaning plagiarius criminal who kidnaps people and selling them into slavery.Plagiarism, as we understand it now, while it was not and could not be, in principle: educated people are well versed in the fine arts, the works were not a lot of, any citation would soon find out.Moreover, arts education consisted of copying outstanding examples, memorizing texts, verbal turns and abstracts.Speakers imitated Cicero, poets - Pindar and Anacreon, philosophers - Aristotle.

Plagiarism was the foundation of ancient culture and, thus, became the basis of modern European civilization.The sun revolved around the Earth, the world was immutable and contain a certain number of ideal, unattainable samples of the divine in a literal sense.For example, the works of Virgil's Sibyl used for divination.Name another compiler anyone not particularly interested in the question of authorship is not standing.Such was the spirit of the age.The authors of ancient chronicles and in the head would not come to put at the bottom of the scroll of his signature.

Plagiarism in the Renaissance

Shifts in copyright started in the Renaissance, when creative people multiplied and began to compete with each other.For example, the 1600 th year of artists began to sign their paintings.

Copying or memorizing still is the only method of education.Copy for creative people was as natural as breathing, but the sacred significance of works of art and each strove podrasteryal noted on art add something original.The authors started to keep a watchful eye that no one Stribro their creative heritage.

After centuries of artistic anonymity, the pendulum has swung copyright ambitions in the opposite direction.Charges of theft texts or ideas fell like a bucket, And they were serious abuse and the reasons for the numerous lawsuits and duels.

problem of plagiarism has become keenly interested in all.Critics and biographers meticulously began to study the classics, easily seeking coveted evidence, and this is still engaged.Now, among the largest listed plagiarists, for example, Shakespeare, Poe, Longfellow, Beecher Stowe, Lowell, and Jack London.Because of relatively recent discoveries - Martin Luther King, slyamzili doctorate.Took place from the timid pedants proposal to deprive him of a scientific degree posthumously were unhesitatingly rejected by the scientific community for reasons of political correctness.

modern attitude to plagiarism

Over time, questions of plagiarism have been developed in detail.Criminal plagiarism divided into innocent allusion, reminiscence, paraphrase and quotation, although the roughest manifestations was plagiarized.In general, the "rascal-the plagiarist" turned into "thin wizard reminiscences."What is logical - in such a delicate issue as ideas and images, very difficult to find the ends.

For example, Elena Surzhikova wrote the song "I will not lie" for Karachentsova and then a chorus without changes appeared in the song "Boel" musical "Notre Dame de Paris."Reminiscence is, quote or malicious intent - neither understand nor prove impossible.

Too much information now deposited at each of us in the head, to hope that in the fall we have a brilliant idea - our own.

Not long ago, the American Historical Association asked Professor Michael Rawson of the University of Wisconsin in Madison to develop a teaching strategy that would help students avoid plagiarism.The professor did a wonderful development, but it soon became clear that she was completely splagiachena from earlier researchers.They began to understand, and it turned out that these authors have used other people's ideas.Eventually we gave up and had to admit that the authorship to trace the original source is not possible.

Today all concerned not plagiarism and copyright.That is not the authorship and copyright - the right to commercial use and copying.The authorship of the same - a relative thing.Who is Banksy, this remarkable artist - one person or a group of friends?Who is the author wrote "The Ghostwriter" detective with the name of our most popular writer on the cover?The answer is not, and never will be - although the matter is clear, as the Kohinoor diamond and the same commercially successful.