hard to imagine what the results would lead to the Second World War, if not for the titanic and selfless work of millions of peasants and workers, engineers and designers, the leading figures of culture and science, to mobilize the people of the Soviet Union in the defeat of the aggressor.
Half lost economic potential and the relocation of hundreds of industrial enterprises in the eastern part of the country, irreparable loss of life and enormous damage to the national economy at the very beginning of the war led to a significant reduction in industrial production.The Soviet economy entered a period of decline.This was particularly noticeable for the defense industries.At the end of 1941 the volume of gross output of Soviet industry decreased twice.Under these conditions, the government was forced to take the most severe measures to strengthen the rear.From the very beginning of the aggression on the part of the Nazis, began to carry out a massive mobilization of the civilian population on the labor front.
By April 1942 expanded the scope of mobilization and rural residents.These measures primarily affected adolescents and women.For example, in 1942, half of the people occupied the national economy, were women.The most problematic at the time was a matter of recruiting qualified staff.In the evacuated enterprises have no more than 27% of professionals and workers, so the end of 1942 developed a special training plan, designed to conduct short-term training courses for 400 thousand. Man.Total for 1942 was prepared by 4.5 million people.But be that as it may, the number of workers dropped to 18.4 million. People, compared with 33.9 million. In 1940.
planned economy of the Soviet Union at that time focused on the provision of military arms and equipment.At the beginning of the war because of the significant loss of Soviet aircraft severely weakened.The situation demanded immediate release of new combat aircraft.
The tank industry has been deployed mass production of war machines of a new design.
Many efforts have been made by engineers and workers to increase the number of manufactured weapons and ammunition, which are so lacking at the front.
But by the end of 1941 the needs of the Navy and Army combat equipment and weapons were not completely satisfied.For the production of tanks, aircraft and other military equipment it had to be a lot of high-quality steel.Due to the relocation of the defense industry in Western Siberia in the Urals we had to make changes in the organization and production technology on a variety of metallurgical plants.
serious damage during the war years was applied to agriculture.In spite of all the forces applied agricultural workers in 1941, zernozagotovlya and production of other products decreased significantly.Production and raw materials became the south-eastern and eastern parts of the country, such as Siberia, the Volga region, Central Asia and Kazakhstan.Whatever it was, but by mid-1942 in the Soviet Union was adjusted war economy, which has been able to ensure the production of military products.
Since 1943 the Soviet economy start to grow due to the general rise in production.
Significantly increased national income, industrial production, the state budget, freight turnover.In mid-1943, the opportunity to accelerate the upgrading of the fleet and the army with modern military equipment.
Acme military production of the Soviet Union reached in 1944.Such heights has been achieved thanks to the solid foundation for the continuous development of the main branches of heavy industry.Increasing the amount of product going through a more efficient use of capacity of existing plants, the introduction of new industrial plants and reconstruction of factories and plants in the conquered territories.The Soviet economy, and in particular non-ferrous metallurgy, chemical industry, metal processing, mechanical engineering and the production of arms and ammunition far exceeded pre-war level.Also increased the number of agricultural production, investment and retail trade.
particularly important role in production tyazhproma played the eastern regions of the country.Also, metal production grew in southern and central parts of the USSR.As a result, the end of military action was melted almost twice the steel compared with the 1943 year.The Soviet economy received a significant boost to the development, by increasing the production of rolled steel, nonferrous metals and special steels.Expanded fuel and energy base.Stabilize coal.
wartime experience has proved that the system of production management team, formed on the eve of the war, has significant potential to mobilize the economic potential of the country.For it was particularly characteristic agility and flexibility, coupled with repressive measures play an important role in the management of human resources and production.All this was the reason that the economy of the USSR during the Great Patriotic War not only destroyed but also strengthened its position.