market principles of revenue is significantly different from the administration.In the simplest terms, earnings in a market economy, understood as a means, expressed in cash or in kind, coming at the disposal of the individual for a fixed or determinable period.
Based on this approval, can be opened and the differences between the ways of income generation.Chief among them is the fact that the market mechanism takes into account not only labor, but also the effectiveness of participation in the market competition.
considered just such a situation in which the income comes not only from work, but also on the competitive advantages and the extraction of profit.Indirectly, this factor significantly expands the list of themselves and revenues that can receive one or another subject.
Modern science examines the principles and mechanisms of revenue generation on the basis of the existing factors of production: labor, land, capital, entrepreneurial talent.The work usually brings income in the form of wages, capital - as a percentage, the earth - in the form of rent.
When using a functional approach, compensation and its size depends on the efficient use of factors of production themselves.
For general assessment of the nature, level and dynamics of income, classification methods are used, which, for all their differences, isolated as traditional following: disposable income, nominal and real incomes.
Disposable income is generally used for personal consumption and represents the amount obtained by subtracting the amount of tax from the amount of the aggregate nominal income.
real income - is the amount of goods and services that a particular subject can be purchased for a period depending on the prevailing market prices at the consumer market.
Finally, nominal income is generated from all the money received by anyone for the whole set period.
Most income is labor origin, and there is not much difference between working at the machine in the factory or enterprise manager or stockbroker.The problem is that the labor component to allocate general is difficult, sometimes impossible, so its parameters are often evaluative, conditional.The reason is that in some activities on the value of the income effect unpredictable factors, what are the risks, luck, market dynamics and so on.
In most cases, the nominal income is generated primarily by salary.For example, in some countries, its share in the national income rises to 75% of the aggregate of its value.
As distinguished nominal income and the real, different and appropriate types of wages: nominal and real.The first of these is the whole amount of money which is paid directly to the employee for his work in the enterprise.In her biggest traditionally judge the welfare of the person and his potential.At the same time, its value can not definitely say about the level of consumption.To reflect this is the real wage index, which is defined as a certain set of real goods and services that can afford to buy the man in the consumer market, given its dynamics, market conditions and the nature of instant status.This establishes a regular directly proportional relationship of real wages of that magnitude, which is the nominal income, and its inversely proportional to the level of market prices for goods and services.
In addition, the amount of wages is determined and such "intangible" factors such as the level of professionalism, the nature of the work itself, in terms of its emotional and psychological tension, the degree of development of innovative potential of the enterprise and its implementation in every workplace, in the end - the quality of work.Consequently, nominal income reflected in the wages of workers is indirect and the nature of the settlement.