Start printing

invention of printing, no doubt due to the creation of the printing press.This event is considered revolutionary in the history of books.Home printing has given a huge boost to the development of literacy.This was due to the rapid expansion of human wisdom, kopivsheysya centuries of cultural creations.Among the world's population has risen sharply thirst for reading, which contributed to the development of the cult of knowledge.

It should be noted that the invention of printing machine was not a spontaneous event.All its elements are formed gradually.At different times the functionality of the machine takes a variety of forms.

There are various information about who initiated the printing.The story describes the first experiments of books in Korea, Mongolia, Japan and China in the 10-11 centuries.But, unfortunately, actually started the book, as repeatedly described, up to now have not reached.It is therefore considered that the beginning of printing was initiated by Johann Gutenberg (1399-1468).By combining various technologies that existed then in production, he invented the perfect way to at the time of publication of the book.Firstly, Guttenberg became the founder of a new font.Instead of individual characters have been used in mirror image cast metal dies.They are loaded to the copper plate, recesses were filled with a special alloy, which contains antimony, lead and tin.Thus, it was possible to cast the letters and words in a large volume.

Guttenberg in 1450 began to publish the full version of the Bible (the first in Europe).Between 1452 m and 1454-m (according to different sources), he managed to print 42-line edition.The Bible is so called because of the fact that on every page of it (all pages have been 1282) has 42 lines in two columns.

Students Gutenberg (Pannartst and Svengeym) began to spread invention publishing technology in Europe.Thus, the beginning of printing helped create a new industry of culture and production of both - typography.Given that the concept of "publishing" was absent at the time, a new specialty supposed perception of the case completely, including the sale of books in the shops at the printing presses.

in the history of publishing in 1500 is considered a landmark.At this point, the production of books has become widespread, despite the rather high cost.At the same printed earlier 1500 publication called "incunabula" - produced in the "cradle" of books released later this year, we got the name "palaeotypes" - "old books".

Start printing in Russia dates back to 1550 year.While the governor was Ivan the Terrible, who had a significant support for the development of typography.But, unfortunately, the first books were released "anonymous" (not contain the output data).Therefore, history is not recorded the data on the first printing.

believed that Ivan Fedorov became the first printer in Russia.Released him "The Apostle" March 1, 1564 has become a model of printing art of the time.This book was released with the assistance of and at the direction of Metropolitan Macarius.The publication is a classic interpretation of Christian teaching followers of Christ.Designed was a book for religious leaders.

In 1565 Fyodorov in place with assistant Peter Mstislavets released became more popular book "Breviary."Thus was the beginning of Russian typography.Followers Fedorov after released "Psalms."In general B16 century in the Moscow printing house has been published nineteen books.Subsequently, the staff of the publishing house was expanded.It started working proofreaders, editors, and other specialists.