Very often it is a substance called potassium chlorate salt, a chemist by the name of France - Berthollet, who discovered potassium chlorate, the formula of which is recorded as KClO3.Berthollet in their experiments receiving material by the action of chlorine to the alkaline solution at high temperature during the reaction.As a result of such reaction produces potassium chloride, potassium chlorate and three water molecules.If we analyze the formula of the substance, should pay attention to what bertoletova salt very rich in oxygen.Externally
bertoletova salt is a colorless crystals which have a density of 2.32 grams per cubic centimeter at a temperature 356oS begin to melt and at 400 ° C - decompose.The solubility of the substance is 3.25 grams per hundred grams of an aqueous solution at a temperature of 0 ° C.With increasing temperature, the solubility of potassium chlorate increases as well.
With sufficient heating temperature, it is very easy to "parted ways" with oxygen atoms that can be displayed in this equation: 2KClO3 = 2KCl + 3O2.
Typically, for potassium chlorate is reacted, in which chlorine gas is passed under forced air pressure through high temperature solution of potassium - hydroxide or carbonate.
During the reaction with hydroxides, chlorine flow is directed through a 30% solution of potassium hydroxide, and when used as a filter carbonates such acts concentrated to a level of 45% potassium carbonate solution.
It is important that such an operation, the crystals formed substances are not littered vent paths, so you should consider using the reaction alonzha.
Then, potassium chlorate, obtained as crystals should be filtered through glass wool, and well dried.Should be avoided in the application technology of the filter paper materials because bertoletova salt may react with the fiber contained in the paper, and cause an explosion.
There are many ways in which you can get potassium chlorate salt.We describe some of them.
Litter in the flask Wurtz 5-10 grams of permanganate, then use a funnel, which was previously to be inserted into the flask with the solution, the by-catch of about 30-70 millimeters of concentrated hydrochloric acid.It is better to do it at the drip, because this way more effectively regulated rate of chlorine during the reaction.Get
potassium chlorate and can be electroplated.To do this, a concentrated solution of common salt to decompose an electric current.This reaction is carried out as follows.It takes a certain amount of salt, the best coarse and non-iodized.The quality of the equipment used by the two electrodes of graphite, glass, electrical wires, a beaker, a bottomless flask Wurtz.Wires connected to a step-down transformer through a rectifier that converts AC to DC.Electrolysis was conducted at a solution temperature of 70 - 80 degrees.
formed by the reaction of potassium chloride, which is much more soluble in water than bertoletova salt.Therefore, after the course of the reaction, potassium chlorate deposited on the walls of the vessel and the potassium chloride is dissolved in water.
In carrying out various experiments and reactions to the substance is necessary to pay attention to the fact that mixtures, especially with organic substances - very explosive, as well as "sensitive" to respond to all kinds of shocks, exposure to high temperatures.The most active compounds, which react with potassium chlorate salt include sulfur, antimony, ordinary carbon black, red phosphorus, even starch and sugar.
particular danger is potassium perchlorate - Perchlorate potassium.This compound has a very strong explosive, so is used as a "working substance" in the grenade, shells and mines.During long periods of storage, this compound may spontaneously ignite.