significant questions about the dominant influence on the development and establishment of a human hereditary genetic predisposition or the environment remains one of the most important and exciting the minds of scientists - psychologists, sociologists and cultural studies - for many years.Despite the advances of genetics in deciphering the genetic code, it is impossible to explain the appearance of a man certain personality traits or behavioral characteristics only by the influence of hereditary factors, as well as the social environment.Almost any behavior and the presence of certain personality characteristics of the individual explains how genetic factors and the influence of the environment.Therefore, the paramount issue is not about who plays a major, and some minor role in shaping individual - heredity or environment and how they interact with the other.Our genetic code - is one of the starting points of development, including physical and behavioral traits, inherited from ancestors, the surrounding social and cultural environment - is another starting point of our development process, which accompanies us throughout life and is called socialization.
socialization - is the development of various social roles, as well as the assimilation of ethical and cultural values and norms, which begins in early childhood and continues into old age.The success of socialization depends on three main factors:
- understanding of what you expect from the environment in accordance with the rules of society.
- change behavior in response to these expectations.
- conformism, iedesires and aspirations of the public to follow the rules and regulations.
long process of entry, adaptation and comprehension of the various social roles, has its stages.Steps socialization or periods, separated into primary and secondary.Primary begin in childhood, when basically formed personality.This is a very important and significant periods of its essential role in which he played the closest entourage (parents, other relatives and friends) is the formation and development of interpersonal relationships.The primary period of socialization - a period of understanding and development of interpersonal communication, they contribute to the fact that a person becomes a full member of society.
a later stage of human socialization is called secondary.They belong to the second half of his life, when he is faced with a variety of public institutions - the government, the army, education and production team, whose influence on the formation and development of the individual is more significant and noticeable as early as the age of reason.Secondary stages of socialization - are stages that allow the individual already socialized to perceive new social roles, to enter into the unknown, but important areas of the objective world.
Where to draw the line between primary and secondary socialization periods?As a rule, it is assumed that the socialization of the individual stages follow each other in achieving its political, economic and social independence, namely, a passport, a profession and work, family, etc.
process of socialization - a process complementary and reversible.Entering and learning the system of social relations, the individual becomes important for the experience, on the other hand, in the process of assimilation of the activity of the social environment he does not accept passively the experience, and converts it into their own attitudes, values and orientation.
Socialization must pass at someone's extraneous participation and assistance.People and institutions with which the person is faced with the attainment of social experience, called agents of socialization.As the stages of socialization, agents are divided into primary (near significant environment) and secondary (public institutions and agencies, their administrations, etc.).
socialization - is not just a process of maturation, it is the consistent attainment of personality unknown, but significant for its rules and roles, continuing throughout life.Stages of socialization coincide with the basic life cycle, which represent the main events of his biography.