The famous Russian prisons - "Matrosskaya Tishina"

Peter I on the right bank of the river Yauza lodged sailor Colony.This fact gave the name to the street, which lies parallel to the river.And as under Catherine II lived there old men-sailors, the house became known as a sailor.Residents of the city have tried to preserve the peace and the elderly by almshouses passed quietly.So for the street name to add another word.And now she was called Matrosskaya Tishina.Later there appeared a prison, popularly known as "Matrosskaya Tishina".


prison "Matrosskaya Tishina" dates back to 1775.Then, by the decree of Catherine II in the place where today the detention center, under the protection of the Company's Charities was open house for "prederzostnyh."As usual in Russian prisons, and later, in 1850, this building was consecrated by the Orthodox Church "All Who Sorrow", and in the twentieth century there appeared bell tower.

House "prederzostnyh" in its original condition existed for a relatively short time.Already by 1870 it was renamed the Moscow correctional prison.The new institution was designed for 150 women and 300 men.The aim of the prison declared: "give into the hands of the rabble-known craft."Rabble, in turn, considered prisoners - petty criminals, thieves, swindlers.

gradually expanded the area of ​​the prison.In 1912, the architect Alberti BA were designed and built the new prison building.And in 1917 the establishment went bankrupt.

In 1918, the prison again suffered the kind of reformation.In the institution, on the basis of already existing correctional institution, the Central Department of punitive NKJU was created reformers.It is a kind of prison medical and educational slant.It occupies in training, re-education and preparation for working life of young people aged 17 to 21 years.However, the reformers functioned for a short time.Within 11 months, in 1919, it ceased to exist.

As archival data, the history of the prison "Matrosskaya Tishina" began with the end of 1946.In place of the current detention center was Kozhevnicheskaya colony.Since 1945, it began to transform the children's colony, on its base founded Prison number 14 in the Office of Internal Affairs of the Moscow region.


As of 1947, the territory of the two institutions are sensitive sites, the first and second housings, respectively.The prison "Matrosskaya Tishina" at the same time could take more than 2,000 prisoners.In addition, in the institution were also outbuildings:

  • boiler, which continues to operate today;
  • built of wood residential building barracks, targeting employees;
  • housing administration;
  • barracks for staff.

for walks of prisoners have been equipped with special areas in the territory of the service yard.Pleasure gardens had the appearance of a circle around the perimeter enclosed by a wooden fence.Guard towers on the outside and carried out internal troops of the Moscow division of Bogorodsk.

Later, in 1949, was built a third building for the maintenance of prisoners.He had a special status in prison and had its own entrance (from the psychiatric hospital number 3), as well as their supervisors and private security.Mostly it served their sentence pending the tribunal, Nazi criminals and convicts working in the Special Technical Bureau of Ministry of Internal Affairs (inventors, designers, engineers).The people are in prison were called "cowboy offices."More life in one of these "sharashek" ably described in his book "The First Circle," Alexander Solzhenitsyn Isaakievich.

Since the beginning of 1950, for two years, administrative buildings converted prison.The first and second sensitive sites were supplemented by the 4th and 5th floors and the exercise yard.Until now convicted carry a walk on the territory of these courts, located on the roofs of buildings.

During the early 50-ies administrative decisions to divide these institutions in urban and regional, have resulted in a need to expand prisons № 14. In this regard, it was renamed the Prison number 1, better known among the people as a prison"Matrosskaya Tishina".

After the death of Beria LP, in 1953, in the case number 3 juvenile offenders were serving sentences.The Prison Service was engaged in teaching adolescents (the inmates had the opportunity to receive secondary education), employment - juvenile prisoners working in workshops at the prison, manufactured envelopes, Christmas toys and other consumer goods.The money earned can be spent on their needs, getting in a stall available products.Children prison lasted until 1997.After it was decided to hold the reconstruction and repair of the third body.And in 1999 he became tuberculous department at the prison hospital.

very same hospital for prisoners was placed in the renovated and reconstructed buildings of the former housing the prison staff.The institution serves not only the "Matrosskaya Tishina", but all the pre-trial detention in Moscow.The hospital has about 706 hospital beds (beds).

last decade in the "Matrosskaya Tishina" constantly conducted various construction and repairs:

  • in 1997 commissioned the catering department (equipped with modern equipment);
  • in 1987 - CHS;
  • first 90 refurbished the third building;
  • in the mid-2000s promoted the first major overhaul of the prison housing
  • in accordance with the sanitary standards, equipped with cameras for convicted and remand prisoners;
  • exercise yards are covered with a roof;
  • today conducted overhaul of the second building of the prison.

According to the manual of the penitentiary service, constantly conducted the necessary work in order to support the establishment of buildings in proper condition.Today the prison "Matrosskaya Tishina" has 7 buildings.

Detention number 1 FSIN Russia

official date of jail number 1 believe 1 September 1985.By order of the Ministry of Interior of the USSR was established detention center number 1 on the basis of the seventh prison regime building.In people, the snake has long been an institution called the "Matrosskaya Tishina".Location: Moscow, Matrosskaya Tishina Street, Building 18. It is located in the Eastern District of the capital.The total area of ​​offices - 41 438 square meters.m.

Initially, the limit of prisoners that could include jail, did not exceed 200 people.The detention center was intended to isolate the period of the investigation and trial of persons for which it was necessary to the adoption of strict measures of supervision.

in 2001, focusing on international standards for the size of the area on the one contained in the conclusion, it was a limitation in filling in prison.

Unfortunately, virtually rules are not followed.According to official data, the detention center number 1 is designed for 2013 people, but the real content exceeds this figure by 21.3% and amounted to 2441 people.

Today, having a chain of renaming for all the years of its existence, the institution of the Penitentiary Service was renamed the Federal state-owned institution "Detention number 1 Federal Penitentiary Service of Russia" (abbreviation PKU jail-1 FSIN of Russia).In addition to the jail

1, Moscow has seven other detention centers.Among them, no less famous "Butyrka" and "Lefortovo".

Famous inmates

Not surprisingly, the seat of one of the most famous prisons Russia was Moscow."Matrosskaya Tishina" - strict regime object.Over the entire period of its operation officially known only three cases udavshegosya escape:

  • June 5, 1995 - participant of one of the gangs AV Solonik;
  • May 2, 2004 - Escape citizen S. Ershov, who was detained for a day;
  • May 7, 2013, in collusion with an employee of the detention center, a thief and a murderer escaped O. Topalov, he was also later detained.

list of known prisoners who happened to serve time in the "Matrosskaya Tishina", is large enough.Among them - the Soviet politicians Janaev GI and Yazov DT, businessmen PL Lebedev and MB Khodorkovsky, Mavrodi SP and many others.


Today prison "Matrosskaya Tishina" conditionally open to the media and various public organizations.Periodically, there is carried out a kind of tours, designed to show the life and conditions of detention of prisoners.

Naturally, during such events show visitors the best camera, leisure and so on.In contrast to this, periodically appear in the mass media reports about violation of prisoners' rights, non-compliance with the rules of detention, hunger strikes, riots, escape attempts, death and other unpleasant moments that allow us to judge that it is not so smooth in jail № 1. And these consobserved not only by the content of prisoners.So, about a year ago it was reported that the Federal Penitentiary Service staff reduction resulted in a significant reduction in their.This led to the emergence of fear on the part of prison guards № 1. As recognized by prison staff, due to reduced number of officers to work was simply too dangerous.

In such circumstances, it is clear that more than one year will be spent to bring the state of Russian prisons to international standards.