These two concepts today were widely spread in different areas of knowledge, though initially their use directed exclusively to the field of biology.The definition of "human genotype" first appeared in the scientific revolution thanks to the efforts Johanson, when in 1909 he used it to refer to a complex of hereditary characteristics of an organism.Category "genotype" is different in content from the concepts of gene and gene pool, as it characterizes the particular biological specimen, and gene and gene pool reflects the genetic characteristics of the species as a whole.
concepts of genotype and phenotype also differ.If the genotype describes only their own hereditary characteristics, which are peculiar to the unit outside the body, depending on other factors, the phenotype reflects the properties, which include the effect of the environment, mediating genetic changes.
In its most general form, the genotype as a holistic system differs from the phenotype of the following parameters:
- they have different sources of genetic information (genotype is DNA phenotype recorded information obtained by an external study of the body);
- as a consequence, the same genotype can be shown as a component of various phenotypes.
In addition, the concept of genotype (as a biological phenomenon) is considered as a broad and narrow sense.In a narrow sense, it is, as already mentioned, is a unique combination of genes, and in a wide - all the signs of heredity, which are formed by genetic.In this sense, the genotype is manifested through a unique combination of highly individual genetic sets (genomes) signs received from their parents.
thus formed another difference: genotype and phenotype differ in that the phenotype under the influence of external factors may lifecycle change, while the genotype of all time will remain unchanged.
consequence, to the determination of the genotype can be approached in a different way, where it is defined as:
- peculiar only to the individual combination of genomic features;
- pairs of specific alleles parameters (one of two different forms of a gene precedence) contained in a certain genome.
phenotype is fixed by the physical and chemical parameters of the body, which determine not only the biological and biochemical individuality, but also behavioral.This term, as the genotype, is used in the two treatments.In a broad sense, all the signs of phenotype reflects the individuality of the body.In a more narrow sense of the phenotype is considered as a criterion for distinguishing certain types of organisms, for example, individuals have a high phenotype stunted - the other.
In the middle of the 19th century, during the formation of sociology as a science, one of the most popular concepts of consideration of society, was the doctrine of organicism Herbert Spencer, the essence of which in general terms was to ensure that Spencer tried to imagine a society, by analogy with the growing human body.Differentiation of human soobschnostey ensured in this doctrine unique characteristics of each nation, its culture, mentality peculiarities of the historical path of prevailing types of social thinking and behavior, and many others.
This eventually led to the fact that the concept of genotype and phenotype were extended in the social teachings.The simplest variant of this interpretation is the release of the so-called Eastern and Western society genotypes, which defines the parameters of their distinguishing characteristics are the just social order and mentality.Mental and social culture, the historical path of development, religion and others.Using the categories of genotype and phenotype in the social sectors, made it possible to use them to refer to the criteria in the study of socio-cultural character of peoples, races, some, mainly large social groups and communities.