Since the beginning of the XV century in the history of Western Europe begins transition period, which creates a splendid culture.At this time, begins the decay of the feudal and the development of the capitalist system: develop a luxury town in Italy, one after the other come the greatest historical discoveries - firearms beginning of printing, there cartography and geography as a scientific discipline.In mathematics are introduced symbolic notation, medicinal chemistry continues its development in the knowledge of chemical phenomena of the human body and the study drugs.The huge success at this time reaches astronomy, Vasco da Gama opened the sea route to India, Columbus found America and Magellan proved sphericity of the earth, going on the first trip around the world.
However, the most important discovery at this time is the overthrow of the dictatorship of the church, a new philosophy of the Renaissance, and that this was a special impetus to the flourishing of culture.The feudal asceticism ghostly world was forever buried under the new trends, which became the foundation of the philosophy of the Renaissance anthropocentrism.Homo sapiens as if awakened from a long sleep and was ready to do for the good of their country, not by chance that at that time is becoming a creative greatest Italian poets of the time: Petrarch, Erasmus, Rabelais, Boccaccio.
philosophy of the Renaissance was formed under the influence of the greatest men of the time, talented artists, architects and sculptors made their contribution to the development of a new empire.Leonardo da Vinci devoted his best work of his greatness - Homo sapiens.As the author of unrivaled "Mona Lisa" and "The Last Supper" He has a huge impact on the aesthetic principles of the Renaissance.Equally strong on energy were in those days canvas Michelangelo Buonarroti, they, like his sculptures glorify the spiritual and the physical beauty of the person, its huge domestic potential.At the same time, a new revival architecture that reaches unprecedented heights, because of the breadth of creative thought flight.
The whole philosophy of the Renaissance impregnated with human recognition as an independent person and asserts its right to manifest their abilities and free personal growth.The first phase of the Renaissance took place as a free-thinking, opposed the spiritual supremacy of the church and the medieval scholastics.The ancient philosophical heritage mastered and restored in full, once again open schools of thought, so unfairly forgotten in the Middle Ages.Exempt from scholastic shell and re-reinterpreted the great works of ancient philosophers - Plato and Aristotle.The philosophy of the Renaissance no longer calls for austerity, repentance, obedience to the will of God, but on the contrary glorifies any initiative in the field of creativity and personal development.The desire to achieve power over their own destiny - it is no longer the feudal and not even Christian ideas, it sprouts new bourgeois order.
special place in the philosophy of the Renaissance takes Nicholas of Cusa, unlike other humanists, a huge amount of time he devoted mathematics and science, and even created a special direction in the philosophy of the time - the Christian naturalistic pantheism.The concept of this theory is that there is a God in the world and the world is in God, and since God is absolutely infinite and unlimited, means that the world is infinite and any border it is possible to move freely.The consequence of this doctrine becomes a great revolution in the outlook of Europeans, crumbling geocentric picture of the universe and the beginning of a new stage in the development of philosophy and science of the Renaissance.